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English 4800, Fall 2019

Teaching Literature in the Secondary Schools

In an effort to prepare future secondary English teachers for the students and classrooms of the 21st Century, this section of English 4800 will focus on a critical inquiry, social justice approach.  In so doing we will address the Common Core Standards, changing student populations, and reform movements in the the teaching of literature including reader response, digital literacy, critical pedagogy, and cultural studies.

(In this course the term "critical inquiry" is in the tradition of "critical theory," not the more abstracted, decontextualized, and superficial approach of "critical thinking skills." Likewise, the term "inquiry" is richer than the simpler, but also of value, expression "questioning strategies.")

After the first part of the semester directed by the instructor, students will take significant responsiblity for course, choosing the reading, creating assignments and activities, and assessing learning as we explore critical inquiry approaches to developing meaningful curriculum and instruction in contemporary secondary schools. This approach represents an experiment in Frierian teacher-student, student-teacher education.

In an era of anti-democratic governmentality, neo-liberal educational reform, standardized testing, and the corporatization of curriculum, future teachers need to think critically about established curriculum regimes and consider how to develop the freedom they need to prepare their students as global citizens in an unfinished, indeed endangered, democracy threatened by demogoguery, inequality, and climate change.

Critical Inquiry & Social Justice

The starting point for a critical inquiry, social justice approach to teaching literature is engaging with critical issues in the world and in the lives of adolescents via relevant and meaningful thematic curriculum. In dialogue with student questions and interest, English language arts teachers should be able to bring together a wide range of cultural materials, including traditional works, multicultural and young adult literature, visual and media texts including film, and cultural and informational texts, and address what texts mean, as well as how they mean, in historical, cultural, political and social contexts.

Thematic teaching facilitates teaching that addresses different abilities, learning styles, and backgrounds. English as a second language students now consitute 9% of the school population in the United States, and their numbers continue to increase. This class will focus on developing curriculum that will foster the engagement and success of all students.

By examining difficult, relevant, and potentially controversial topics for critical inquiry and social justice teaching during the student-led portion of the course, future teachers will gain understanding of approaches, strategies, curriculum, and issues involved in teaching literature at the secondary level, see Course Goals. (You may also want to review the WMU teacher education Mission.)

Student groups will select topics addressing current and controversial areas to inquire into such as:

    literature and climate change;
    literature and undocumented students and workers, immigration, border walls;
    literature and White nationalism / neo-nazism;
    literature, policing/the criminal justice system, and Black Lives Matter;
    literature and economic inequality;
    literature and healthcare as a human right;
    literature and educational opportunity, equality, and affordability;
    literature and terrorism;
    literature and representation of Islam, and of Arabs;
    literature and refugees;
    literature and reproductive freedom;
    literature and hunger/famine;
    literature and transgender experience and rights;
    literature and threats to information, government secrecy, Internet freedom;
    literature and democracy.

Expect to spend an additional twenty dollars on books, packets, and reading materials for each of the student-led units -- this reading will be announced throughout the course.

New Literacies and New Technologies

Rapid evolution in information technology offers many avenues and resources for critical inquiry extending and reshaping the teaching of English. The inherited cultural archive is now available in digital format on-line. Complementary resources and tools that far exceed what is in textbooks are now available on the Internet and new genres of informational and visual texts are emerging.

The WMU English Department has, perhaps, the most advanced language arts teacher preparation classrooms in the world. Rather than training teachers to adopt cook book software or corporate "classroom management" packages, these labs foster teacher designed instruction, critical thinking about technology and curriculum, teacher and student publication, free, open-source, or low cost resources, and strategies for bringing the vast resources and communicative possibilities of the Internet to all students.

Our class will be organized by this on-line syllabus that also serves as an electronic, hyperlinked, textbook. Students will develop their own teaching website, that can serve as both a portfolio of work and a real-world working site for future teaching. We will develop teaching websites, use on-line threaded discussion, publish student work online, engage in virtual school discussions, and students will design technology enhanced teaching and use of the laptop classroom into learning in a variety of ways.

Professional Involvement

Future English teachers should join NCTE, MCTE, and/or MRA and read regularly the English Journal or Voices from the Middle. The English Companion Ning is a remarkable resource with over 10,000 members -- join and draw on this resource throughout the semester. WMU has an NCTE Student affiliate; become an active member.

An important assignment in the class is to attend a professional teacher conference, and report on that to the rest of the class.  This Fall possibilities include the MCTE Fall Conference in Lansing Friday October 18 and the NCTE National Conference in Baltimore, November 21 to 24. If finances present a challenge, seek support and be creative, for example, the gofundme approach.

I recommend gay and straight future teachers join GLSEN, the Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.

Teachers need to be informed about the world.  Students are expected to read regularly the New York Times and other sources. WMU provides a free NYT subscription.

Official information about the Michigan Teacher Certification test is available on the MTTC website.

Course Success

Since the class is discussion-based, attendance and preparation are essential to your own learning and to the learning of your classmates. Missing any classes will affect your learning. Missing more 3 classes may lower your grade and missing 5 classes may lead to failing. Study my philosophy regarding discussion, preparation, participation, attendance, grading, and learning -- and consider your own philosophy!

Your final course grade will be an average of grades for the major assignments, listed and weighted below. At the hour scheduled for the final exam students will turn in a take home exam, discuss the course, and attend an intern teaching panel comprised of graduates of the class recently engaged in intern / early career teaching and job searching.

This course will follow WMU policies regarding academic honesty.

WMU has many resources to foster student health and well being. If at any point in the semester if you feel stress, English 4800 does offer free on-line therapy from Eliza!

My office is 723 Sprau Tower, 387-2605. Office hours are after class and by appointment. You can always reach me via email.









Beach, Thein, & Webb. Teaching to Exceed the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: A Critical Inquiry Approach for 6-12 Classrooms. (Routledge, 2016).

Atwell, Nancie. The Reading Zone: How to Help Kids Become Skilled, Passionate, Habitual, and Critical Readers (Scholastic, 2007)

Brass, Jory and Allen Webb. Reclaiming English Language Arts Methods Courses: Critical Issues and Challenges for Teacher Educators in Top-Down Times (Routledge, 2015) (Do not buy this book - it is available for free in electronic form through the WMU library!)

Additional books, packets, and web sites as components in research and group learning (up to $20 per group).

Recommended Optional Texts

Major Assignments

Attend a Professional Teacher Conference

Create a Teaching Website for future Students (15%) Due: 9/11

Critical Inquiry, Social Justice Unit Plan (15%) Due: 10/9

Discussion Analysis (10%) Due: 10/23

Student-Led Units (30% your own unit (includes self-evaluation) & 20% participation in other units)

Final Exam (10%)

Electronic Syllabus

Aug 28: Introductions

In class: Read carefully the Joyce Davidson Case Study making a list of the strengths and weaknesses of Joyce's instruction.

Sep 4: Digital Resources, Critical Analysis, and Your Teaching Website

1. Read carefully through the entire on-line syllabus, including all assignments, and, especially, expectations for the student-led unit. Bring any questions about the syllabus and assignments to class.

2.  Join our class phone message system, Remind. If you have a smartphone go to this page in your web browser and follow instructions: rmd.at/8g96f7. If you don't have a smart phone text "@8g96f7" to this number "81010". If you don't have a cell phone go to rmd.at/8g96f7 and sign up for email notification.

3. Join NCTE and subscribe to the English Journal.

4. Put on your calendar the MCTE Fall Conference in Lansing Friday October 18 and the NCTE National Conference in Baltimore, November 21 to 24.

5. Read: Chapter 8 on Digital/Media Literacy from and Teaching to Exceed, and from Education Networks pg. 65-69 by Joel Spring.

6. Start your own teaching website! Support available at the Student Technology Center on the Tower Bridge (between library and technology center).

Sep 9: English Teacher Resources

1. Read three or more articles from back issues of the English Journal that interest you -- try to connect to your topic for the unit you will lead. You should subscribe to the English Journal (only $12.50 for students!) and you can do so from its home website and view a sample issue. NCTE members can read back issues of the English Journal at the NCTE website on-line using their membership number as a password. Back issues are also in the Sangren Library under the call number PE1.E5. (Between Waldo (all issues before 1980) and Sangren (issues after 1980) we have back issues to 1912 when the English Journal began publication--fascinating reading in the history of secondary English teaching!) You can conduct an ERIC search (via our library database access) for articles on specific topics, for example for the unit you will be leading, by setting "English Journal" as the "publication title" for one of the search terms and your topic (and variations on it) for the other search term.

2. Find three or more secondary English lesson plans available on the web that you consider to be thoughtful and well-crafted -- again, try to connect to your topic for the unit you will lead. There are many sources for Language Arts lesson plans on the web. Try Read/Write/Think, Outta Ray's Head, Web English Teacher, New York Times Lesson Plan Archive, Lesson Plans Page, ERIC, NCTE's Notes Plus (subscribers only), Lesson Planz.com, and, of course, Google!

3. Drawing on at least three on-line lesson plans and three English Journal articles, develop an annotated list of "Teaching Ideas" with at least a paragraph of description and comments about how you might use or modify the idea in your own classroom. Post this on your website page for teacher resources with links as appropriate.

Sep 11: Your Teaching Website

1. Complete your Teaching Web Site to present to the class. Exceed expectations!

Sep 16: Introduction to Standards and Critical Inquiry Teaching

1. Read: Teaching to Exceed, Chapter 1. Come to class with 5 carefully worded questions about different parts of the chapter that the whole class can discusss.

2. Review the Common Core State Standards, especially the Introduction, standards for Grades 6-12, Reading Literature and Informational Text, and Text Complexity sections.

Sep 18: Standards and Curriculum Frameworks

1. Read: Teaching to Exceed, Chapter 2.

2. Focusing on the Curriculum Frameworks portion of the chapter, write a couple of paragraphs comparing and contrasting one of the other frameworks with Critical Inquiry.

3. Prepare to present to the class about one item about the CCSS (page 38), and one item about implementation of the CCSS (page 42).

Sep 20: Global Climate Strike

Consider attending the Global Climate Strike

Sep 23: Studying Examples of Critical Inquiry & Social Justice Teaching

1. Read/Review: Teaching Climate Change to Adolescents: Chapter 1, Chapter 2.

2. Read: Teaching Climate Change to Adolescents: Chapter 3, Chapter 4.

3. Begin Critical Inquiry Unit Plan due: 10/9.

Sep 25: Studying Examples of Critical Inquiry Con't

1. Read: Short stories: "How Close to the Savage Soul" and from Everything Change: “Into the Storm”

Sep 30: Reading Literary Texts

1. Read: "The Lesson" by Toni Cade Bambara

2. Read: Teaching to Exceed, Chapter 5 & write 5 carefully worded discussion questions about the chapter.

Oct 2: Independent Reading

1. Read The Reading Zone by Nancie Atwell.


Oct 7: Literature Circles

1. Read: Literature Circles (Wikipedia), "Literature Circles for Adolescent Developmental Readers" (Ragland & Palace), & examine Literature Circle Role Sheets

Oct 9: Critical Inquiry / Social Justice Unit Plan Due

Critical Inquiry Unit Plan due. Make attractive for the web and publish at ??. Prepare to present to the class.

Oct 14: Leading Discussion

1: Read: "Teaching Toward Great Conversations" by Randy Bomer.

2: Study: Creating Discussion Questions, as well as A System for Analyzing Discussion. After class meeting, observe a discussion and write a discussion analysis due: 10/23.

Oct 16-18 Fall Break

Oct 18 MCTE Conference, Lansing

Oct 21: Discussion Analysis Due


Student-Led Units

Oct 23

Oct 28

Oct 30

Nov 4

Group 1

Nov 6

Nov 11

Nov 13

Nov 18

Group 2

Nov 20

Nov 25


Dec 2

Dec 4

Group 3

Dec 9-13 Finals Week

Dec 11 Wednesday 2:45-4:45 Final Exam & Intern / New Teacher Panel

Due: Take Home Final Exam

Intern / New Teacher Panel

At the time set for our final exam, a panel of English 4800 graduates will speak on their experiences with intern teaching, first year teaching, and the job search. Does 4800 work in the 'real world'? Read on-line: Tips for Intern Teaching and Letter to First-Year Teacher.

Examine Other On-line Secondary English Methods Courses