for the English Language Arts
The vision guiding these standards is that all students
must have the opportunities and resources to develop the language skills
they need to pursue life's goals and to participate fully as informed,
productive members of society. These standards assume that literacy
growth begins before children enter school as they experience and experiment
with literacy activities—reading and writing, and associating
spoken words with their graphic representations. Recognizing this fact,
these standards encourage the development of curriculum and instruction
that make productive use of the emerging literacy abilities that children
bring to school. Furthermore, the standards provide ample room for the
innovation and creativity essential to teaching and learning. They are
not prescriptions for particular curriculum or instruction. Although
we present these standards as a list, we want to emphasize that they
are not distinct and separable; they are, in fact, interrelated and
should be considered as a whole.
1. Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts
to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures
of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond
to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal
fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and
2. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many
genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical,
ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.
3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret,
evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience,
their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of
word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies,
and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence,
sentence structure, context, graphics).
4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language
(e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with
a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use
different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with
different audiences for a variety of purposes.
6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions
(e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language,
and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.
7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas
and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize
data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts,
people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose
8. Students use a variety of technological and information resources
(e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and
synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.
9. Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in
language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups,
geographic regions, and social roles.
10. Students whose first language is not English make use of their first
language to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop
understanding of content across the curriculum.
11. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and
critical members of a variety of literacy communities.
12. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish
their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the
exchange of information).
More information on the standards is available from the
following NCTE publications:
for the English Language Arts
in Practice for the English Language Arts, 6-8 by Jeff
in Practice for the English Language Arts, 9-12 by Peter Smagorinsky
Created by: firstname.lastname@example.org
Revised Date: 4/05