Formal
Logic
PHIL 3200 Fall
2018 Call
#: 43697
Instructor:
Dr. Kent Baldner (baldner@wmich.edu)
Class:
MW: 10:00—11:40 a.m., 3212 Dunbar Hall
Office Hours: By appt. (typically M 121 and TR
1112), Moore Hall 3013
Office Phone:
387‑4402
Required Text: Introduction
to Logic (3^{rd} ed.), Harry Gensler
Class Web Page: http://homepages.wmich.edu/~baldner/logicsyl.htm
Class
Software:
Download at: http://www.harryhiker.com/lc/
In this
course, we will study formal or symbolic logic. This will involve
“translating” English sentences and arguments into a formal
language and learning to evaluate these arguments using formal
proof techniques. Although
there is strictly speaking no “math” involved in the class,
the symbolism we use has much in common with mathematics, and
the kind of reasoning we will study is often known as
“mathematical logic.” While
this course fulfills the Gen Ed Critical Reasoning
requirement, it was designed to attain a significantly higher
level of proficiency than what is required for General
Education. If
you have no interest in mathematical reasoning, but simply
want to meet the Gen Ed proficiency, you are strongly
advised to take a different course.
Logic is as
much a skill as an intellectual discipline. As such, it requires
practice more so than simple understanding. Consequently,
regular class attendance and completion of class assignments
is critical. Whether and how I take roll is up to me.
Course Schedule and Grading: My goal is to cover Chapters 1 and 6
thru 9 (maybe more), of the Gensler text, time permitting. There will be in
class tests after each of the chapters, in addition to the
final exam. (Final
Exam: Monday,
December 10, 8:00  10:00.)
The homework assignments are not graded, but not
completing them can still affect your grade. I will announce in
class (and notify you via email) readings/assignments for the
next class period, as well as the dates of each of the tests. It is your
responsibility to attend class and check your emails for
course information. It
is also your responsibility to download the software for
this course, which creates homework exercises for you. You are
responsible for using the software to email me your
homework results.
Tentative Schedule
Monday
Wednesday
8/27 No
Classes 
8/29 Greetings;
General Introduction; Installing and using LogiCola
software 
9/3
Labor Day
No Classes 
9/5 Chapter 1,
Ch. 6.1—6.3a. Today's
lecture notes. Homework
(LogiCola
exercises from Ch. 6.1—6.3a) Due by
Friday 
9/10 Chapter
6.4—6.5 Notes on
doing translations

9/12 Thru
6.56.7, Notes
on the exercises on Validity and Translations; Testing
for Validity in 6.6 and 6.7; Homework
(LogiCola exercises from 6.5 through 6.7) Due Friday 
9/17
Section
6.8 Homework
(LogiCola
from 6.8) due Wed. 
9/19 6.106.13; 
9/24
Practice
Version of Test 1; Review
all of Ch. 6 (except 6.9 and 6.14) 
9/26 Test
on Ch. 6 (not
including 6.9 or 6.14) 
10/1 Sections 7.1 and 7.2: Homework (LogiCola exercises 7.1 and 7.2) due by Wednesday 
10/3
Section
7.1 and 7.2: Homework (LogiCola exercises 7.3) Due by Friday 
10/8 Section 7.3
and 7.4; Homework (LogiCola exercises thru 7.4) Due by Wednesday 
10/10 Review
all of Chapter 7 No New Homework, but review all the exercises from Ch. 7.1—7.4 
10/15
Test
on Chapter 7 
10/17
Fall RecessNo Classes 
10/22 Ch. 8.1, Quantified
Translations; Notes
for Class Lecture LogiCola
exercises due by Wednesday 
10/24 Ch.
8.2 LogiCola
exercises due by Friday 
10/29
Chapter
8, continued LogiCola
exercises due by Wednesday 
10/31
Chapter
8, continued LogiCola
exercises due by Friday 
11/5 Chapter 8,
continued LogiCola
exercises due by Wednesday 
11/7 Chapter 8, Practice Test
(Tentative) 
11/12
Test on
Chapter 8 
LogiCola
exercises due by Friday 
11/19
Chapter
9.2 LogiCola
exercises due by Wednesday 
11/21 No Class 
11/26
Chapter
9.3 (9.4) LogiCola
exercises due by Wednesday 
11/28
Chapter (9.3)
9.4 LogiCola
exercises due by Friday 
12/3 Chapter
9.5 
Final Exam: Monday, December
10, 8:00 —10:00
Downloads of class Handouts:
Chapter
6 LogiCola Assignments
Chapter
7 LogiCola Assignments
Chapter
8 LogiCola Assignments
Chapter
9 LogiCola Assignments
Day
2 Lecture Notes
Notes
on Doing Basic Translations
Notes
on Validity and Translations
Parentheses
and "Scope"
Logical
Equivalence, Tautologies, and Contradictions
Doing
"Truth
Evaluation" Exercises in 6.3 and 6.4
Using
Truth
Tables to Establish Validity in 6.5 and 6.6
Testing
for Validity in 6.6 and 6.7
Understanding
the
"Truth Assignment Test" in 6.7
Section
6.7 Tutorial
Lecture
on 6.16.8: Truth tables, Validity, Truth Assignment Test,
and Translations
Necessary
and
Sufficient Conditions
Translation
Guide
Truth
Tables for Truth Functional Connectives
S
and IRules Explained in English
Simplification
(S) and Introduction (I) Rules
Proof
Strategy for "Easier" Proofs and Refutations (Ch. 7.1 and 7.2)
Class
notes on "Harder" Proofs and Refutations in Chapter 7
Proof
Strategy for "Harder" Proofs and Refutations (7.3 and 7.4)
From
Propositional
to Quantified Logic
Propositional
Logic,
Predicate Logic, and Quantified Logic
Rules
for Well Formed Formulas (including rules for quantified
statements)
Quantificational Inference Rules
Proof
Strategy Including Quantifiers (Ch. 8)
Translating
"All"
and "Some" with Horseshoes and Dots
Quantified
Translation and LogiCola
Chapter
9.1 Notes
Chapter
9.2 Notes
Chapter
9.3 and 9.4 Notes
Chapter
9.5 Endless Loops
Chapter
9.6Definite Descriptions
General Education Proficiency 4c: This course fulfills Gen Ed
Proficiency 4c, Critical Thinking.
Course Objectives: 1) Students will learn to recognize
the formal characteristics of deductively valid arguments; 2)
Students will learn to construct formal proofs in
propositional and quantified logic; 3) Students will be
introduced to modal logic and/or metalogic.
Classroom Courtesy:
There is a natural tendency for people to occasionally
"chat" with their neighbors during class. A little of this is
to be expected, but it doesn't take much to create a
background "hum" which interrupts my concentration,
and hinders others from hearing what is going on. So please have
consideration for me and your fellow students and remain quiet
during class. Likewise,
please turn off any cell phones, radios, etc. Texting during class
is not appreciated! And if you bring
your laptop, use it for class related purposes only. Finally, if you want
to read the paper or catch up on your sleep, please don’t come
to class. There
must be more comfortable places to sleep than in this
classroom.
Academic Honesty:
You are responsible for making yourself aware of and
understanding the policies and procedures in the Undergraduate
and Graduate Catalogs that pertain to Academic Honesty. These
policies include cheating, fabrication, falsification and
forgery, multiple submission, plagiarism, complicity and
computer misuse. [The policies can be found at http://catalog.wmich.edu under Academic Policies, Student
Rights and Responsibilities.] If there is reason to believe
you have been involved in academic dishonesty, you will be
referred to the Office of Student Conduct. You will be given
the opportunity to review the charge(s). If you believe you
are not responsible, you will have the opportunity for a
hearing. You should consult me if you are uncertain about an
issue of academic honesty prior to the submission of an
assignment or test.
Religious Observance: (The following is from the
University’s Policy on Religious Observance) The University is
a diverse, multicultural enterprise and, as a community, we
jointly embrace both individual responsibility and dignified
respect for our differences.
University policy recommends that students be should
permitted to fulfill obligations set aside by their faith, and
that students who must be absent from scheduled classes to
fulfill religious obligations or observe practices associated
with their faith should not be disadvantaged. However, it is
the student’s responsibility to make arrangements with his/her
instructors in advance. Instructors should assume that a claim
of religious observance has veracity, especially when advance
notice is provided by the student. Students likewise must
recognize that it is their responsibility to meet all their
course obligations. Instructors are not obligated to provide
materials to students unless these materials would have
normally been distributed to the entire class.
Accommodation
for disabilities: Any student with a documented
disability (e.g., physical, learning, psychiatric, vision,
hearing, etc.) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations
must contact Disability Services for Students at (269)
3872116 at the beginning of the semester. A disability
determination must be made by this office before any
accommodations are provided by the instructor. For more
information, go to http://www.wmich.edu/disabilityservices.
Course Evaluation:
Students will have the opportunity to evaluate both the
course and the instructor. This
is handled by the University’s “Course/Instructor Evaluation
System.” During
the semester, you will receive an email from this office
(known as “ICES”) with instruction for how to complete an
evaluation. You
are encouraged to take this opportunity to provide input.