Formal Logic

PHIL 3200     Fall 2019     Call #: 43495



Instructor:             Dr. Kent Baldner (

Class:                    MW: 10:00—11:40 a.m., 3030 Brown Hall

Office Hours:        By appt. (typically M 12-1 and TR 11-12), Moore Hall 3013

Office Phone:       387‑4402

Required Text:      Introduction to Logic (3rd ed.), Harry Gensler

Class Web Page:

Class Software:     Download at:



In this course, we will study formal or symbolic logic.  This will involve “translating” English sentences and arguments into a formal language and learning to evaluate these arguments using formal proof techniques.  Although there is strictly speaking no “math” involved in the class, the symbolism we use has much in common with mathematics, and the kind of reasoning we will study is often known as “mathematical logic.”  While this course fulfills the Gen Ed Critical Reasoning requirement, it was designed to attain a significantly higher level of proficiency than what is required for General Education.  If you have no interest in mathematical reasoning, but simply want to meet the Gen Ed proficiency, you are strongly advised to take a different course.


Logic is as much a skill as an intellectual discipline.  As such, it requires practice more so than simple understanding.  Consequently, regular class attendance and completion of class assignments is critical. Whether and how I take roll is up to me.


Course Schedule and Grading:  My goal is to cover Chapters 1 and 6 thru 9 (maybe more), of the Gensler text, time permitting.  There will be in class tests after each of the chapters, in addition to the final exam.  (Final Exam:  Monday, December 10, 8:00 -- 10:00.)  The homework assignments are not graded, but not completing them can still affect your grade.  I will announce in class (and notify you via email) readings/assignments for the next class period, as well as the dates of each of the tests.  It is your responsibility to attend class and check your emails for course information.  It is also your responsibility to download the software for this course, which creates homework exercises for you.  You are responsible for using the software to email me your homework results.



Tentative Schedule


  Monday                           Wednesday 

8/26   No Classes

8/28  Greetings; General Introduction; Installing and using Logicola software

9/2  Labor Day

       No Classes


9/4  Chapter 1, Ch. 6.1—6.3a.  Notes for today's class. 

Homework (Logicola exercises from Ch. 6.1—6.3a) Due by Friday

9/9  Chapter 6.4—6.8

Homework (Logicola exercises from Ch. 6.4—6.7) Due Wednesday

9/11  Thru 6.8 (i.e., no new reading)

Homework (Logicola exercises from 6.10 and 6.11) Due Friday

9/16  Section 6.10—6.12

Homework (Logicola from 6.12) due Wed.

9/18  Finish up/Review/Practice Test
Any Unfinished Homework due by Friday

9/23 Test on Ch. 6 (not including 6.9 or 6.14)

9/25 Sections 7.1 and 7.2: Homework (Logicola exercises 7.1 and 7.2) due by Friday

9/30  Section 7.3

Homework (Logicola exercises 7.3) Due by Wednesday

10/2  Section 7.4

Homework (Logicola exercises thru 7.4) Due by Friday

10/7  Review all of Chapter 7

No New Homework, but review all the exercises from Ch. 7.1—7.4

10/9  Practice Test on Chapter 7 (Tentative)


10/14 Test on Chapter 7


10/16 Fall Recess--No Classes

10/21Ch. 8.1, Quantified Translations

LogiCola exercises due by Wednesday


10/23  Ch. 8.2

LogiCola exercises due by Friday


10/28 Chapter 8, continued

LogiCola exercises due by Wednesday


10/30 Chapter 8, continued

LogiCola exercises due by Friday

11/4  Chapter 8, continued

LogiCola exercises due by Wednesday

11/6  Chapter 8, Practice Test (Tentative)


11/11 Test on Chapter 8


11/13  Chapter 9.1

LogiCola exercises for 9.1 ( H: IM & IT) due by Friday

11/18 Chapter 9.2

LogiCola exercises for 9.2 (IDC) due by Wednesday

11/20 Chapter 9.3

LogiCola exercises for 9.3 (H: RM & RT) due by Friday

11/25   Chapter 9.4

LogiCola exercises for 9.4 (H: RM &RT)  due by Wednesday

11/27   No Class


12/2  Chapter 9.5 Homework for 9.5 (I: RC & BC) by Wed.

12/4  Review Chapter 9


Final Exam:  Monday, December 9, 8:00 —10:00


Downloads of class Handouts:

Chapter 6 LogiCola Assignments

Chapter 7 LogiCola Assignments

Chapter 8 LogiCola Assignments

Chapter 9 LogiCola Assignments

Introduction to Formal Logic

Notes for Day 2, First Substantive Lecture
Parentheses and "Scope"
Logical Equivalence, Tautologies, and Contradictions
Doing "Truth Evaluation" Exercises in 6.3 and 6.4
Using Truth Tables to Establish Validity in 6.5 and 6.6
Understanding the "Truth Assignment Test" in 6.7
Section 6.7 Tutorial

Lecture on 6.1-6.8: Truth tables, Validity, Truth Assignment Test, and Translations

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 
Translation Guide

Truth Tables for Truth Functional Connectives
S- and I-Rules Explained in English

Simplification (S) and Introduction (I) Rules
Proof Strategy for "Easier" Proofs and Refutations (Ch. 7.1 and 7.2)
Proof Strategy for "Harder" Proofs and Refutations (7.3 and 7.4)

From Propositional to Quantified Logic 
Propositional Logic, Predicate Logic, and Quantified Logic
Rules for Well Formed Formulas (including rules for quantified statements)
Quantificational Inference Rules

Proof Strategy Including Quantifiers (Ch. 8)
Translating "All" and "Some" with Horseshoes and Dots

Quantified Translation and LogiCola

Chapter 9.1 Notes
Chapter 9.2 Notes  

Chapter 9.3 and 9.4 Notes 
Definite Descriptions: From Symbolic Logic to Metaphysics
Endless Loops



General Education Proficiency 4c:  This course fulfills Gen Ed Proficiency 4c, Critical Thinking.


Course Objectives:  1) Students will learn to recognize the formal characteristics of deductively valid arguments; 2) Students will learn to construct formal proofs in propositional and quantified logic; 3) Students will be introduced to modal logic and/or meta-logic.


Classroom Courtesy:  There is a natural tendency for people to occasionally "chat" with their neighbors during class.  A little of this is to be expected, but it doesn't take much to create a background "hum" which interrupts my concentration, and hinders others from hearing what is going on.  So please have consideration for me and your fellow students and remain quiet during class.  Likewise, please turn off any cell phones, radios, etc.  Texting during class is not appreciated!  And if you bring your laptop, use it for class related purposes only.  Finally, if you want to read the paper or catch up on your sleep, please don’t come to class.  There must be more comfortable places to sleep than in this classroom.


Academic Honesty:  You are responsible for making yourself aware of and understanding the policies and procedures in the Undergraduate and Graduate Catalogs that pertain to Academic Honesty. These policies include cheating, fabrication, falsification and forgery, multiple submission, plagiarism, complicity and computer misuse. [The policies can be found at under Academic Policies, Student Rights and Responsibilities.] If there is reason to believe you have been involved in academic dishonesty, you will be referred to the Office of Student Conduct. You will be given the opportunity to review the charge(s). If you believe you are not responsible, you will have the opportunity for a hearing. You should consult me if you are uncertain about an issue of academic honesty prior to the submission of an assignment or test.


Religious Observance:  (The following is from the University’s Policy on Religious Observance) The University is a diverse, multicultural enterprise and, as a community, we jointly embrace both individual responsibility and dignified respect for our differences.  University policy recommends that students be should permitted to fulfill obligations set aside by their faith, and that students who must be absent from scheduled classes to fulfill religious obligations or observe practices associated with their faith should not be disadvantaged. However, it is the student’s responsibility to make arrangements with his/her instructors in advance. Instructors should assume that a claim of religious observance has veracity, especially when advance notice is provided by the student. Students likewise must recognize that it is their responsibility to meet all their course obligations. Instructors are not obligated to provide materials to students unless these materials would have normally been distributed to the entire class.


Accommodation for disabilities:  Any student with a documented disability (e.g., physical, learning, psychiatric, vision, hearing, etc.) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations must contact Disability Services for Students at (269) 387-2116 at the beginning of the semester.  A disability determination must be made by this office before any accommodations are provided by the instructor.  For more information, go to

Course Evaluation:  Students will have the opportunity to evaluate both the course and the instructor.  This is handled by the University’s “Course/Instructor Evaluation System.”  During the semester, you will receive an email from this office (known as “ICES”) with instruction for how to complete an evaluation.  You are encouraged to take this opportunity to provide input.