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Economic Systems, Reciprocity

 

Integrative theory of social stratification: The theory based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of modern society.

 

Exploitative theory of social stratification: The theory based on the assumption that hierarchy exists because one group of individuals seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes.

 

Means (or factors) or production:Land, labor, technology, and capital--major productive resources

 

Generalized Reciprocity:Principle that characterizes exchange between closely related individuals:As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative.In generalized reciprocity, the giver expects nothing concrete or immediate in return.

 

Balanced Reciprocity:Form of reciprocity which applies to individuals who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household.In this form of reciprocity, individuals may not expect anything in return immediately, but not getting anything eventually, would damage the relationship.

 

Negative Reciprocity:Form of reciprocity which is the most purely “economic.”Reciprocity is expected to be immediate, and individuals try to maximize their immediate return through barter.




Marriage, According to Edmund Leach:

 

1. Establishes the legal father and mother of a woman’s children and the legal mother of a man’s
2. Gives the husband a rights (potentially a monopoly) in the wife’s sexuality and the wife rights (potentially a monopoly) in the husband’s sexuality
3. Gives either or both spouses rights to the labor of the other
4. Gives either or both spouses rights over the other’s property
5. Establishes the joint fund of property--a partnership--for the benefit of the children

6. Establishes a socially significant “relationship of affinity” between spouses and their relatives

 

Crucial Point: Marriage is more than a relationship between a man and a woman:  It organizes kinship.  Typically, it establishes important ties between groups of people, for example, the husband’s and wife’s kin groups, clans, and so forth.


Kinship is a means to organize and describe the social roles of individuals in a society.




Marriage and Kinship:  Definitions

 

Marriage is more than a relationship between a man and a woman:  It organizes kinship.  Typically, it establishes important ties between groups of people, for example, the husband’s and wife’s kin groups, clans, and so forth.

 

Kinship is a means to organize and describe the social roles of individuals in a society.

 

As with marriage, which is central to kinship systems, kinship systems can be defined as much by what they do as what they are.  Thus, we can say that kinship systems designate and emphasize individuals’ rights and responsibilities in society as a whole, and/or within the kinship structure.




 Kinship Diagram

 

Kinship Terms

 

Lineal kinship terminology:     Parental generation kin terminology with four terms:  one for M, one for F, one for FB and MB, and one for MZ and FZ.

 

Bifurcate merging kinship terminology:  Kinship terminology in which M and MZ are called by the same term, F and FB are called by the same term, and MB and FZ are called by different terms.

 

Bifurcate collateral kinship terminology:  Kinship terminology employing separate terms for M, F, MB, MZ, FB, and FZ

 

Generational kinship terminology:  Kinship terminology with only two terms for the parental generation, one designating M, MZ, and FZ and the other designating F, FB, and MB

 

Affinals:  relatives by marriage, whether of lineals (e.g., son’s wife) or collaterals (e.g., sister’s husband)

 

Abilineal:  principle of descent that does not automatically exclude children of either sons or daughters

 

Bilateral kinship calculation:  A system in which kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes:  mother and father, sister and brother, daughter and son, and so on.

 

Corporate groups:  groups that exist in perpetuity and manage a common estate, including descent groups and modern corporations

 

Ego:  Latin for ‘I’.  In kinship charts, the point from which one views.

 

Kindred:  A group of people closely related to one living individual through both parents

 

Lineal relative:  Any of ego’s ancestor’s or descendants (e.g., parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren) or the direct line of descent that leads to and from ego.

 

Ambilocal:  postmarital residence pattern in which the couple may reside with either the husband’s or wife’s group

 

Neolocality:  Postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents

 

Unilocal:  Either virilocal or uxorilocal postmarital residence; requires that a married couple reside with the relatives of either the husband (vir) or the wife (uxor), depending on the society