"Historically, the three fundamental stages of the supply chain, procurement, production and distribution, have been managed independently, buffered by large inventories. Increasing competitive pressures, and market globalization are forcing firms to develop supply chains that can quickly respond to customer needs. To remain competitive, these firms must reduce operating costs while continuously improving customer service. With recent advances in communications and information technology, as well as a rapidly growing array of logistics options, firms have an opportunity to reduce operating costs by coordinating the planning of these stages. In this paper, we review the literature addressing coordinated planning between two or more stages of the supply chain, placing particular emphasis on models that would lend themselves to a total supply chain model. Finally, we suggest directions for future research."

B.C. Arntzen, G.G. Brown, T.P. Harrison, L.L. Trafton Global supply chain management at Digital Equipment Corporation Interfaces, 25 (1) (1995), pp. 69–93


         "The US Air Force is embarking on the most significant transformation ever experienced regarding sustainment support to the warfighter. A key component of this transformation is the purchasing and supply chain management (PSCM) initiative. Key to the PSCM initiative has been the standup of commodity councils. The PSCM initiative integrates purchasing and supply processes into a single end-to-end process that spans the air force supply system -- demand and supply planning, purchasing, inventory management, and suppliers -- with the goal of reducing supply chain operating costs and improving warfighter readiness. A leading practice of PSCM is a commodity council, established to maximize weapons systems availability and minimize the supply chain costs and cycle times. The vision of the commodity council concept is to achieve cost savings and performance improvements by leveraging commodity volumes across the air force. Commodity councils are expected to use market experts to formulate strategies, and form strong supplier relationships."

Gillen, Janice. "Purchasing and Supply Chain Management: Commodity Council Concept." Contract Management 01 2006: 34-8. ProQuest. Web. 16 Apr. 2014 .