I found some research on my major. Most people ask me "What's ISM?" and I couldn't really give them an answer, until I found this little article on ISM.

Increasingly, many organizations have begun to
embrace the concept of integrated supply chain
management. Studies in various industries have
shown that supply chain performance could
improve if trading partners were able to mutually
assess expected consumer demand and plan
supply correspondingly.
For example, the 1993 Efficient Consumer
Response (ECR) study sponsored by the grocery
industry showed that there were excessive inventories in the grocery supply chain.
The study estimated that the industry could save $30 billion

annually—about 11 percent of supply chain
costs—if suppliers, distributors, and grocers
could use technology to work closely to deliver
products more efficiently to consumers. It was
estimated that in the dry-goods segment of the
industry, inventories were at 104 days of supply
and could be reduced by 41 percent, to 61 days
of supply.
Rather than merely serving as one part of the
operational strategy, as has been the traditional
view, integrated supply chain management gives
organizations the ability to alter the flow of
resources and value throughout the entire supply
chain. The integration of disparate supply chain
partners into one smoothly operating, seamless
whole results in an agile competitive system—
one that can rapidly, effectively, and efficiently
provide unique product/service bundles to each customer on demand.


Poirier, C.C., and S.E. Reiter. Supply Chain
Optimization: Building the Strongest Total
Business Network. San Francisco: BerrettKoehler Publishers, 1996.

Richmond, B., A. Burns, J. Mabe, L. Nuthall, and
R. Toole. “Supply Chain Management Tools:
Minimizing the Risks—Maximizing the
Benefits” in Strategic Supply Chain
Alignment. Brookfield, NY: Gower Publishing
Co., 1998: pp. 509-520.

Riggs, D.A., and S.L. Robbins. The Executive’s
Guide to Supply Management Strategies:
Building Supply Chain Thinking into All
Business Processes. New York: AMACOM, 1998.