HNRS-2900(5) Final Projects

Spring 2008 Semester

`http://homepages.wmich.edu/~kaldon/classes/hn290-5-projects.htm`

```Here are three websites pertaining to shock diamonds that can be
seen in the exhaust of jets afterburners.  Also, attached are two
you-tube videos that demonstrate the shock diamonds.

http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/propulsion/q0224.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_diamond
http://library.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/getfile?00326958.pdf

```Our topic was "Shape of electron orbitals in atoms." We had some
experience with basic orbitals in Chemistry last semester. Basically,
electrons repel each other and consequently electron orbitals
repel each other. What we found on some other sites (wikipedia
being the most helpful) is that a molecules position in space
can be determined by the Shrodinger Equation, which gives the
probability of an electron being at any given point and time.
There were two different versions of this equation: a time dependent
one and a time independent one, both of which are too complicated
for us to type out, but can easily be found on Wikipedia. Here
are some websites that be found that deal with this subject.
Considering how fast electrons travel and their subatomic size,
it is amazing to discover an equation capable of predicting
electron location.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schrödinger_equation

/orbitron/images/noflash.gif&imgrefurl=http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk
/orbitron/AOs/3p/index.html&h=360&w=480&sz=2&hl=en&start=4&um=1
&tbnid=4lSEuVjBLg4RIM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Delectron
%2Borbitals%2Bwave%2Bequation%26ndsp%3D18%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/AOs/3p/index.html

http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/30_timeline/stm.gif&imgrefurl=
http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/30_timeline/timeline.html
&h=429&w=600&sz=106&hl=en&start=7&tbnid=zl3tFguEPnIXvM:&tbnh=97

Corwin Stout and Rory Gallup ```

```Subject Graphic Equalizers

URL's

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_equalizer

http://www.rane.com/note101.html

http://www.ehow.com/how_2211288_set-up-graphic-equalizer.html?
ref=fuel&utm_source=yahoo&utm_medium=ssp&utm_campaign=yssp_art

(a)This topic is important because a graphic equalizer is a tool that
can adjust the intensity  of certain frequencies in compared to others
to make up for anomalies within the room that may cause certain
frequencies to sound weak or distorted.

(b)The first URL is a wikipedia page that gives a good background on
in general what equalization is.

The second URL is by far the best one when it comes to describing the
types of equalizers and more specifically graphic equalizers.

The final URL was good mainly for the paragraph at the top of the page
describing the basic function that an equalizer would serve in a normal
environment.

```The topic we were assigned was digital audio/sound.

The information was found at the following http URL’s:

http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/movie-sound4.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_audio

Digital audio is the process of sending sound digitally.
The sound wave is approximated using right hand end points,
similar to approximating an integral by right hand end points.
These approximations would be done using the wave equation or a
variation of the wave equation. After this is done, the
information is then sent through digital means. The digital
information arrives and is transformed back into sound.

Digital audio/sound basically uses a computer program to
transform sound waves into digital information. This is
significant because the sound waves can be reconstructed years
later. If only we had a recording of Newton’s or Einstein’s
thoughts. How amazing would that be?

Jessica Hartl
John Stscherban
```

```Subject Carnegie Hall Group

www.rpginc.com/news/library/inter_science_reviews.pdf

http://www.giles.com/yamaha1/pressreleases/ProAudio/carnegiePM1D.htm

With how much time we spent on the various sound waves produced by
various instruments, the science and principles behind the acoustics
of concert halls is both interesting and significant. Also, since
I don't forsee concerts ever going out of style, the mechanics behind
good acoustics is very important, with Carnegie Hall being one of the
best examples.

The first website gives information about sound diffusing techniques
in various concert halls. Carnegie hall has diffusers that disperse
the sound waves that hit the back wall to avoid echoes and to avoid
acoustic energy loss. This is more on general acoustic techniques
rather than Carnegie Hall specifically.

The second website touches on the nuances of electrical sound systems
coinciding with natural acoustics. This introduces the technology
involved in such operations as well.

```Here are the web site you requested for the HNRS 2900 Wave project
the topic we chose was "Pictures of Vibrating Drumheads"

This first site has a lot of basic information about what is going
on and little animated gif images that model what is being described.
http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/MembraneCircle/Circle.html

The second site we found is report from the UIUC about not only the
vibrations of drum heads but also goes on to other instruments like
a cymbal, bell, guitar, and others.  It shows pictures of the nodes
outlined by salt on some black background.
http://online.physics.uiuc.edu/courses/phys199pom/Lecture_Notes/P199POM_Lect4_Ch4_Part2.pdf

This third site is a neat video from ebaums world showing a plate
vibrating at different frequencies and the node outlined with salt.
It's pretty cool.
http://www.ebaumsworld.com/video/watch/10800/

This site is a lot of fun, it's a virtual model of a drum head that
you can view and manipulate in all sorts of interesting ways by
adjusting the view, possible frequencies, dampening, etc.

This final site is more mathematical than the rest, talking about
the bessel functions but there are also some neat little pictures
to go with.

That all,

Carter Cole and
Cody Westra```

```From: Lee E Edgerton

Nichole and I did looked up things for the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
We both thought it was very interesting to see how much like
curves it resembled at times, and how much it swayed!  I'm
sorry I have sent this to you late, I didn't have internet
access last night, and it was not Nichole's fault.  I hope you
will still be able to use the information on time though.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge
-This site includes information on the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
as well as some good photographs of it swaying due to wind.

http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/anm/tacoma/tacoma.html
-This site has details on the collapse of the bridge as well
as quite a few pictures and a video clip.