Lectures in PHYS-107 (13)

Week of June 24-28, 2002

Monday 6/24 - REVIEW CLASS - Go over Dr. Phil's Megadeath All-In-One Roller Coast problem and the All-Titanic Final Exam. Course & Teacher Evaluations. Return Q20. Q21-22 Due. Blue Sheets (Topic 2 worksheets) Due. Q23 Take-Home, Due At Final Exam.

Tuesday 6/25 - FINAL EXAM (2pm to 4pm)

Week of June 17-21, 2002

Monday 6/17 - Sonic Booms and other shockwaves. Bullwhip story. Four Fundamental Forces in Nature: Gravity, E & M, Weak Nuclear Force, Strong Nuclear Force. The Realization that Electricity and Magnetism were part of the same Electromagnetic Force was a great triumph of 19th century physics. Franklin's One-Fluid Model of Electricity. Real Electric Charges. Two charges: like charges repel, unlike (opposite) charges attract. Coulomb's Law looks like Newton's Law of Universal Gravity. The Hydrogen Atom: Gravity loses to Electric Force by a factor of 200 million dectillion (!!!). Q18 in-class. 2nd Sample Exam. Q19 Take-Home, Due Tuesday. Last day to turn in Final paper for those that did not give a draft to Dr. Phil.

Tuesday 6/18 - Return X3, Q14, Q16/17. Discussion of Significant Figures again. Gravitational, Electric and Magnetic Forces are not Contact Forces - Require Fields. Electric Fields. Electric Potential (Voltage). Spark gaps. Charge accumulates on tips of conductors. Lightning rods. Ohm's Law and Power Law. The Simplest Circuit. Series and Parallel Resistors. Q20 Take-Home, Due Thursday.

Wednesday 6/19 - No Class. No one expressed interest in Dr. Phil coming in for extra Office Hours on Wednesday, so I'll be off-campus as usual.

Thursday 6/20 - Demonstrations: Series and Parallel light bulbs, U.S.Navy surplus hand crack generator. High voltage electrical transmission lines: use A.C. so a transformer can raise voltage, lowering current, greatly reducing power lost in wires from power plant due to Joule heating. Visible Light: ROYGBIV. Electromagnetic Spectrum (ELF, Radio, Microwaves, IR, ROYGBIV, UV, X-rays, gamma rays). Law of Reflection. Why seven years bad luck? (Medieval point of view.) Law of Refraction. Total Internal Reflection. Thin Lenses. Positive, biconvex, converging lens. Concentrating sunlight: burning paper or popping ants? Negative, biconcave, diverging lens. Real image formed by passing rays through a positive thin lens. Return Q18. All-Titanic Sample Final Exam handout. Friday's Atomic & Nuclear Physics handouts. Q21-22 Take-Home, Due Friday.

Friday 6/21 - Atomic & Nuclear Physics (see Handout and Dr. Phil's Periodic Table Sheet). Bohr Atom. Return Q19. Q21-22 Take-Home, Now Due Friday.

Week of June 10-14, 2002

Monday 6/10 - Length Expansion. Volume Expansion of Solids and Liquids. Ideal Gas Law (PV/T = constant). The Laws of Thermodynamics. Heat Energy (Q) and Temperature Change & Phase Change. Water has a high Latent Heat of Vaporization: (1) Long boiling time, (2) Firemen use it to take heat energy out of the fire zone. The Heat Engine and Three Efficiencies (Actual, Carnot and 2nd Law). Fuel Economy (miles per gallon) is not an Efficiency. No Quiz today. Last day to turn in Draft paper for those that wish to turn in a draft.

Tuesday 6/11 - The Three Efficiencies. There is no conspiracy to keep big 100 m.p.g. cars out of our hands. To use less fuel, do less work. Waves: Single Pulse vs. Repeating Waves. The motion of the material vs. the apparent motion of the wave. For Repeating Waves, we have a Repeat Length (wavelength) and a Repeat Time (Period). Frequency = 1/Period. Wave speed = frequency x wavelength. Demonstration: the Slinky shows both longintudinal (string type) and transverse waves (sound type). Q15 In-Class. Q16/17 Take-Home, Due Thursday.

Wednesday 6/12 - No Class.

Thursday 6/13 -Return Q13,Q15. Constructive and Destructive Interference. Standing Waves on a string. Fundamental, First Overtone, Second Overtone, etc. Demonstration: First and higher overtones on a string driven by a saber saw. Standing Waves in a tube. Tuning forks, resonance tubes. Beat frequency.VHS Video: Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster (1940). First day to turn in completed Topic 1 Book Report. No Q18 today. Q16-17 Take Home turned in today.

Friday 6/14 - Exam 3. Topic 2 (Blue Sheets) Work Sheets handed out. New Due Date: Monday 24 June. First Sample Final Exam.

Week of June 3-7, 2002

Monday 6/3 - Exam 2. Q12 due.

Tuesday 6/4 - Extended Objects: Mass occupies a volume and shape. Three Classical States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas. Combinations: Condensed Matter (covers both Solids and Liquids) and Fluids (covers both Liquids and Gasses). Two Extreme States of Matter: Plasma (electrons stripped off, high temperature), Cryogenics (extreme cold, odd behavior). Mass-to-Volume Ratio (Density). NOTE: Do not confuse the Density of the Materials with the Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the OBJECT. Density of Water built into the SI metric system (1 gram/cm³ = 1000 kg/m³). Pressure = Force / Area. SI unit: Pascal (Pa). Example: Squeezing a thumbtack between thumb and forefinger. One Atmosphere standard air pressure = 1 atm. = 14.7 psi = 101,300 Pa. Pressure at a depth due to supporting the column of liquid above. Water pressure = 101,300 Pa at depth h = 10.33 m. The perils of SCUBA diving. "Physics Does Not Suck" (See D.O. Wyble's 3 Rules for Physics Students) - To draw water up a straw, one decreases the air pressure in your mouth by geometry and the outside air pressure PUSHES the water up the straw. Floating on the Surface: Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the boat < Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the Liquid. Topic 2 (Blue Sheets) Data Sheet handed out. New Due Date: Monday 24 June. Reminder: Monday 10 June by 5pm, last day to turn in a Draft book report, if you wish to have a Draft looked at.

Wednesday 6/5 - No Class.

Thursday 6/6 - Why Boats Float. Example: Front lab table as a 250 kg boat with 4.00 m³ volume. Buoyant Force = Weight of the Boat = Weight of the Water Displaced by the Submerged Part of the Boat. Archimedes and Eureka! (I found it!) Smooth Fluid Flow. Bernoulli's Equation and the Continuity Equation. Water Tower and the Faucet Problem. Why the water tower needs a vent. Demonstration: 2-liter bottle with holes drilled. Example: Air flow around a wing. (Faster air over top means lower pressure on top, so net force is up -- Lift.) Q13 In-Class. Q9-11 Returned. Q14 Take-Home Due Friday.

Friday 6/7 - Return X2, Q12. Go over Exam 2. Temperature & Heat. Heat = Energy. Two objects in thermal contact, exchange heat energy, Q. If net heat exchange is zero, the two objects are at the same temperature. Temperature Scales: °F, °C and K (Kelvins). Linear Expansion: Most objects expand when heated, shrink when cooled. Example: One 39 ft. (12.0m) steel rail expands 5.88 mm from winter to summer, but that's 0.75 meters for every mile of railroad track. Expansion joints. I-57 in Chicago and the expanding asphault. Question: Does the material expand into a hole when heated, or does the hole expand? Q14 due. No Quiz written for today -- had to deal with Microsoft causing errors in web filenames. Grr.

Week of May 27-31, 2002

Monday 5/27 - MEMORIAL DAY HOLIDAY - No Class.

Tuesday 5/28 - Static & Kinetic Friction. Rubber on concrete. UCM Revisited. Centripetal Force. No such thing as Centrifugal Force. Examples: Minimum radius for safe turns at given speed v. The story of the 50,000 rpm Ultra-Centrifuge and the Fresh Rat's Liver. Artificial Gravity by rotation. Newton's Universal Law of Gravity (or Newton's Law of Universal Gravity). Finding g. (Off by 1/2 %, because Earth is not a uniform, homogeneous sphere.) Tides: High and Low (oceans more or less attracted by Moon), Spring and Neap (Moon and Sun). How Universal Gravity affects Life on Earth (estuaries).Definition of Linear Momentum (p = m v). Q8 Take-Home Due. 2nd Sample Exams, Q9/Q10 Take-Home due Thursday.

Wednesday 5/29 - No Class.

Thursday 5/30 - Movie clip: 2001: A Space Odyssey (What would it look like to have use centripetal force for artificial gravity? Stanley Kubrick's 1968 movie showed us a large rotating space station and a smaller rotating carousel on a ship to Jupiter.) Conservation Laws in Physics. Two extremes in collisions: Totally Elastic Collision (perfect rebound, no damage) and Totally Inelastic Collision (stick together, take damage). Linear momentum is conserved in all types of collisions. Example: The Yugo and the Cement Truck. Head-on Collisions. What happens in a wreck. How airbags work. Work: A Physics Definition (Work = Force times distance in the same direction). Work = Energy. Kinetic Energy. KE is conserved in Totally Elastic Collisions, but is not conserved in inelastic collisions. Q9/Q10 Take-Home Due. 3rd Sample Exam (Spring 2001 X2). Q12 Take-Home due Monday.

Friday 5/31 - PC: Use website to go over solutions for Q5, Q6/7, Q8. Reminder of Due Dates for Topic 1 Paper. Some thoughts on some of the Sample Exam problems. Work & Energy continued. Work-Energy Theorem (net Work = Change in K.E.). Potential Energy: Storing energy from applied work for later. Gravitational P.E. = mgh. Conservation of Total Mechanical Energy (T.M.E. = K.E. + P.E.). Lose angle and directional information because energy is a scalar, not a vector. Example: Roller Coaster (If we neglect air resistance and friction, then 1st hill must be highest. Convert between K.E. [speed] and P.E. [height].) Q11 In-class quiz. Q12 Take-Home Due Monday. NOTE: Exam 2 scheduled. Moved to Monday 6/3, so you can have the weekend to study.

Week of May 20-24, 2002

Monday 5/21 - Exam 1. Q5 due.

Tuesday 5/21 - Movie clip: Speed (You have to have some positive v0y if you want to jump a gap -- even with a bus.). Uniform Circular Motion (UCM). Space Shuttle in Low-Earth Orbit (There's still gravity up there!). Some stories about Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's Three Laws of Motion: Zeroeth Law - There is such a thing as mass. First Law - An object in motion tends to stay in motion, or an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless acted upon by a net external force. Second Law - F=ma. Third Law - For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, acting on the other body. (Forces come in pairs, not apples.) SI unit of force: Newton (N). Free Body Diagram. Q6/7 Take-Home due Friday.

Wednesday 5/22 - No Class.

Thursday 5/23 - Return X1, Q2-4. Go over Exam 1. Force is a vector. Free Body Diagrams. Normal Force (Normal = Perpendicular to plane of contact). Sum of forces in x or y equations. Example of 125 kg crate being dragged/pushed around. SI unit of mass = kilogram (kg). SI unit of force = Newton (N). English unit of force = pound (lb.). English unit of mass = slug (Divide pounds by 32.).

Friday 5/24 - Resistive Forces: Friction and Air Resistance. Low speed and high speed air resistance. If allowed to drop from rest, then a real object may not free fall continuously, but may reach a Terminal Velocity (Force of gravity down canceled by Drag force up) and doesn't accelerate any more. Ping-pong balls versus turkeys or pennies. World's Record Free-Fall. Two kinds of Friction: Static (stationary) and Kinetic (sliding). For any given contact surface, there are two coefficients of friction, µ, one for static and one for kinetic. Static is always greater than kinetic. Q6/7 Due. Hand out Q8 Take-Home due Tuesday. Hand out first sample exam pages for Exam 2. Reminder: Memorial Day holiday on Monday 5/27 - no class.

Week of May 13-17, 2002

Monday 5/13 - Movie clip: Top Gun (F-14's being catapaulted off carrier deck). Kinematic Equations in 1-D. Equation Without Time. Free-Fall. Kinematic Equations in 2-D. (The guy in the fedora smoking a cigar.) Q2 Take-Home due by 5pm. Handouts, Sample Exams. Q3 Take-Home due Tuesday

Tuesday 5/14 - Q2 solution. Classic Simple Pursuit (Cop and the Speeder). Two kinds of numbers: Scalars (magnitude and units) and Vectors (magnitude, units and direction). Right Triangles: Sum of the interior angles of any triangle is 180°, Pythagorean Theorem (a² + b² = c²). Trigonometry: SOHCAHTOA Rule. Standard Angle (start at positive x-axis and go counterclockwise). Standard Form: 4.00m @ 30°. Handouts, Sample Exams. Q4 In-Class on falling.

Wednesday 5/15 - No Class.

Thursday 5/16 - Q4 Solution. Calibrating Speedometers: Seconds per Mile. P-O-R (Press-On-Regardless) example. Rule: You can't average averages. The average speed is the distance remaining / time remaining. Falling up and falling down. Adding two vectors by adding x-components, y-components, then finding magnitude and standard angle of the resultant vector. Using Vector Addition for Velocities: Upstream, downstream (rivers), Headwind, tailwind, crosswind (airplanes). Handout (Those Darn Vectors Again). Q5 Take-Home on Vectors, Due Friday.

Friday 5/17 - NOTE: Exam 1 scheduled. Moved to Monday 5/20, so you can have the weekend to study.

Week of May 6-10, 2002

Monday 5/6 - Introduction to Dr. Phil. Scare students to death. First equation: Speed = Distance / Time.

Tuesday 5/7 - What do we mean by Measurements? Development of Speed equation for Constant or Average Speed. 60 m.p.h. = "A Mile A Minute". (1848: The Antelope)

Wednesday 5/8 - No Class.

Thursday 5/9 - SI Metric System. The Effect of Standards on Systems (example of the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters). A simplified trip to the store. Acceleration. Q1 in-class quiz on speed.

Friday 5/10 - Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration. Q2 Take-Home due Monday.