*Updated: 19 September 2004.*

MONDAY 12/8: FINAL EXAM - 2:45pm to 4:45pm - 1104 Rood Hall

Friday 8/29: Class begins. Distribute syllabus. Introduction to Dr. Phil (videotape presentation). Scare students to death. The nature of studying Physics. Science education in the United States.

Monday 9/1: LABOR DAY HOLIDAY - No Class.

Tuesday 9/2: Q1 (15,000 points automatically for participating.)

Wednesday 9/3: "Speed Limit 70" First equation: Speed = Distance / Time.

Thursday 9/4: Variations on a theme - more ways to write Speed = Distance / Time (v = d / t, etc.). Q2 Take-Home (due Monday 9/8/2003).

Friday 9/5: SI Metric System. What do we mean by Measurements? Significant Figures. Topic 1 assigned (see Booklist).

Monday 9/8: Precise or Accurate? (Precision vs. Accuracy). What do we mean by v = 1 meter/sec? Converting m.p.h. to m/s. 60 m.p.h. = "A Mile A Minute". (1848: The Antelope) Take-home Q2 due today.

Tuesday 9/9: P-O-R (Press-On-Regardless) example. Rule: You can't average averages. The average speed is the distance remaining / time remaining. A simplified trip to the store -- The S-Shaped Curve. Acceleration.

Wednesday 9/10: (8am - Dr. Phil delayed by 20 minutes due to TWO traffic messes around Grand Rapids) Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration in 1-D. Equation Without Time -- Avoiding the Quadradic Formula. What do we mean by a = 1 meter/sec² ? You cannot accelerate at 1 m/s² for very long. Types of Motion: No Motion (v=0, a=0), Uniform Motion (v=constant, a=0), Constant Acceleration (a=constant). We generally cannot accelerate for very long.

Thursday 9/11: Two examples of using Kinematic Equations in 1-D. (1) Car accelerating from rest (v0 = 0). (2) Bullet accelerating from rest in rifle barrel. Problem Solving Stategies: List of variables. Count your unknowns. Check your units! So far we are doing motion in just one dimension. But that one direction can be vertical instead of horizontal. Kinematic Equations in 2-D. If x and y are perpendicular axes, then can solve as two 1-D problems connected only by time t. Aristotle and whether heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects. Demonstration with a textbook and a piece of paper. Repeated with crumpled paper. Free-Fall. All objects near the surface of the Earth, in the absence of air resistance, fall and accelerate at the same rate, g = 9.81 m/s². That's nearly ten times the rate from before! (No wonder it hurts to fall out of a tree -- you get going really fast very quickly.) Q3 take-home, due Monday 15 September 2003.

Friday 9/12: Free-Fall. Falling Down and Falling Up. The Turning Point ( v=0 but a = -g during whole flight). The illusion of "hanging up there in the air" at the turning point. Kinematic Equations in 2-D. (Start problem with: The guy in the fedora smoking a cigar.)

Monday 9/15: Kinematic Equations in 2-D. Solving two equations in two directions together. (The guy in the fedora smoking a cigar. The body at the base of the building. Is it an "accident"?). Classic Simple Pursuit (Cop and the Speeder). Solving equations for two different vehicles together. Q4 in-class. Q3 take-home, due Monday 15 September 2003.

PLEASE NOTE WE NEED TO BE MORE EFFICIENT

ABOUT TURNING QUIZZES INTO THE RIGHT PILES!

Tuesday 9/16: Comments on Exam 1 format. Date for Exam 1 moved from
Monday 9/22 to Monday 9/29, so you can have an extra week to study. Simple
Classic Pursuit versus a more realistic pursuit -- v vs. t graph more like
"A Trip to the Store." Two kinds of numbers: Scalars (magnitude
and units) and Vectors (magnitude, units and direction). Compass points.
Standard Angle (start at positive *x*-axis and go counterclockwise).
Standard Form: 5.00m @ 30°.

Wednesday 9/17: Right Triangles: Sum of the interior angles of any triangle is 180°, Pythagorean Theorem (a² + b² = c²). Trigonometry: SOHCAHTOA Rule. Adding vectors by Analytical method. (Check to make sure your calculator is set for Degrees mode. Try cos 45° = sin 45° = 0.7071) Why arctangent is a stupid function on your calculator.

Thursday 9/18: Adding two vectors by adding *x*-components, *y*-components,
then finding magnitude and standard angle of the resultant vector. Finding
the final vector velocity of The guy with the fedora and the cigar
problem. Using Vector Addition for Velocities: Upstream, downstream
(rivers), Headwind, tailwind, crosswind (airplanes). Q5 take-home, due
Monday 22 September 2003. Remember that Exam 1 has been rescheduled from
Monday 22 September to Monday 29 September 2003.

Friday 9/19: Comments on upcoming Exam 1. Discussion of Ballistic Motion. Max height. Time to max height.

Monday 9/22: Ballistic Motion (con't.). Two Dangerous Equations. You can only use the Range Equation if the Launch Height = Landing Height. But the sin (2*theta) term in the Range Equation means that (1) 45° gives the maximum range for a given initial velocity and (2) that all other angles have a complementary angle (90° - theta) that gives the same range (but a different time and height). High and low trajectories for Range Equation. Q5 Take-Home now due Tuesday 9/23.

Tuesday 9/23: Types of Motion studied so far: No motion, Uniform motion (v=constant, a=0), Constant Acceleration. Uniform Circular Motion (UCM): speed is constant, but vector velocity is not; magnitude of the acceleration is constant, but the vector acceleration is not. Velocity is tangent to circle, Centripetal Acceleration is perpendicular to velocity and points radial INWARD. Space Shuttle in Low-Earth Orbit. (There's still gravity up there!). Some useful geometry info: Circles (C = 2(pi)r ; A = (pi) r²). Q6 now a Take-Home due Wednesday 9/24.

Wednesday 9/24: Newton's Three Laws of Motion: Zeroeth Law - There is
such a thing as mass. First Law - An object in motion tends to stay in
motion, or an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless acted upon by a
__net external force__. Second Law - F=ma. Third Law - For every
action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, __acting on the other
body__. (Forces come in pairs, not apples.) SI unit of force: Newton
(N).

Thursday 9/25: Go over Q5. Short form of Newton's Three Laws. Some stories about Sir Isaac Newton. Q7 Take-Home due TUESDAY 9/30 (i.e. after Exam 1).

Friday 9/26: Go over Q6. Continue stories about Sir Isaac Newton. Review for Exam 1 -- Monday 29 September 2003 at Noon, 1004 Rood.

Monday 9/29: Exam 1.

Tuesday 9/30: Free Body Diagrams. Normal Force (Normal = Perpendicular
to plane of contact). Sum of forces in *x* or *y* equations.
Pushing a 125 kg crate around. (Near the surface of the Earth, you can use
the relationship that 1 kg of mass corresponds [not "equals"] to
2.2 lbs. of weight. So multiple 125 by 2 and add 10%... 250 + 25 = 275...
so a 125 kg crate has a weight of mg = 1226 N or 275 lbs.). SI unit of
mass = kilogram (kg). SI unit of force = Newton (N). English unit of force
= pound (lb.). English unit of mass = slug (Divide pounds by 32.).
Variations as we allow for an applied force that is at an angle. Q7
take-home due today.

Wednesday 10/1: Resistive Forces: Friction and Air Resistance. Low speed and high speed air resistance. If allowed to drop from rest, then a real object may not free fall continuously, but may reach a Terminal Velocity (Force of gravity down canceled by Drag force up) and doesn't accelerate any more. Ping-pong balls versus turkeys or pennies. World's Record Free-Fall.

Thursday 10/2: Inclined plane problems: Change the co-ordinate system, change the rules. In the tilted x'-y' coordinates, this is a one-dimensional problem, not two-dimensional. Two kinds of Friction: Static (stationary) and Kinetic (sliding). For any given contact surface, there are two coefficients of friction, µ, one for static and one for kinetic. Static is always greater than kinetic. Static & Kinetic Friction. Rubber on concrete. Tires rolling with friction on good roads -- this is static friction not kinetic friction because the tires aren't sliding on the pavement. Anti-Lock Brakes and Traction Control. Q8 take-home, due Monday 6 October 2003.

Friday 10/3: Inclined plane problems: Change the co-ordinate system, change the rules. In the tilted x'-y' coordinates, this is a one-dimensional problem, not two-dimensional. "You can't push on a rope." Since the force from a wire/string/rope/chain/thread/etc. can only be in one direction, Dr. Phil prefers to call such forces T for Tensions rather than F for Forces. Hanging a sign with angled wires -- still the same procedure: Sketch of the problem, Free Body Diagram, Sum of Forces equations in the x- and y-directions, solve for unknowns. Simple pulleys (Massless, frictionless, dimensionless, only redirect the forces). "There is no free lunch." The bracket for the pulley will have to support a force greater than the weight of the hanging object. Mechanical advantage: multiple pulleys allow us to distribute the net force across multiple cables or the same cable loop around multiple times. Tension in the cable is reduced, but you have to pull more cable to move the crate.

Monday 10/6: Discussion about current Q8 Take-Home quiz. USE YOUR FREE
BODY DIAGRAMS and YOUR SUM OF FORCES EQUATIONS. (Yes, you can solve this
quiz without doing this, but Dr. Phil wants you to do it properly -- then
you can use the "obvious" known answers to check your work.)
Newton's Universal Law of Gravity (or Newton's
Law of Universal Gravity). Takes two masses -- there are two forces,
according to Newton's Third Law. Finding *g*. (Off by 1/2 %, because
Earth is not a uniform, homogeneous sphere.) Revisit the Space Shuttle in
orbit problem. Find *g* at r=6,770,000 meters in class. Tonight, you
should go backwards through the problem and find *v* (the speed of
the Shuttle in orbit) and *T* (the period or time to make one
orbit). Q8 now due Tuesday 10/7. Q9 postponed because copier is down.

Tuesday 10/7: Finish Shuttle Revisited Problem. Tides: High and Low (oceans more or less attracted by Moon), Spring and Neap (Moon and Sun). How Universal Gravity affects Life on Earth (estuaries). UCM Revisited. Centripetal Force. No such thing as Centrifugal Force. The story of the 50,000 rpm Ultra-Centrifuge and the Fresh Rat's Liver. Q8 now due today.

Wednesday 10/8: The story of the physicists and the merry-go-round. Elevator Problems. The Normal Force represents the "apparent weight" of the person in the elevator. For the elevator at rest or moving at constant speed, the Normal Force = weight, and the tension of the cable = weight of loaded elevator. But if there is an acceleration vector pointing up, the apparent weight and the tension of the cable increase; if the vector points down, the apparent weight and the cable tension decrease. In true Free Fall, without any air resistance, the Normal Force = 0 and you are floating. The need for "Artificial Gravity" using UCM in long duration space missions.

Thursday 10/9: Work: A Physics Definition (Work = Force times distance in the same direction). Work = Energy. Kinetic Energy -- an energy of motion, always positive, scalar, no direction information. Work-Energy Theorem (net Work = Change in K.E.). Potential Energy: Storing energy from applied work for later. Gravitational P.E. = mgh. Conservation Laws are very important in Physics. Conservation of Total Mechanical Energy (T.M.E. = K.E. + P.E.). Lose angle and directional information because energy is a scalar, not a vector.

Friday 10/10: Return X1. Go over solution. Discuss future strategies for studying. Conservation of Energy continued. Example: Roller Coaster (If we neglect air resistance and friction, then 1st hill must be highest. Convert between K.E. [speed] and P.E. [height].) Hand-out first Sample Exams for Exam 2. Double-Quiz 9-10 take-home. Due TUESDAY 14 October 2003.

Monday 10/13: DVD clips: (1) *Top Gun* (Uses for the
equation-without-time and other kinematics for constant acceleration,
F-14's being catapaulted off carrier deck and recovered.) (2) *Speed
*(You have to have some positive v0y if you want to jump a gap -- even
with a bus.) (3) *2001: A Space Odyssey* (What would it look like to
have use centripetal force for artificial gravity? Stanley Kubrick's 1968
movie showed us a large rotating space station and a smaller rotating
carousel on a ship to Jupiter.) (4) *Space Cowboys* (Conservation of
Total Mechanical Energy and roller coasters.)

Tuesday 10/14: Executive Decision (announced at Noon class): Exam 2 moved from Monday 20 October 2003 to Wednesday 22 October 2003. Continue with Conservation of T.M.E. (P.E. + K.E.) on a roller coaster. Total energy limits maximum height. Although a loop-the-loop is not a proper UCM problem, we can apply UCM at the top of the loop and determine the minimum safe speed for going around the loop without falling off. At the minimum speed, the Normal Force between the wheels and rail goes to zero (the wheels just "kiss" the track), so the centripetal force is just equal to the weight, w = mg. Demo: a suspended bowling ball shows conservation of T.M.E. Linear Momentum ( p = mv ) is a vector quantity. Newton's form of the 2nd Law. Two extremes in collisions: Totally Elastic Collision (perfect rebound, no damage) and Totally Inelastic Collision (stick together, take damage). Linear momentum is conserved in all types of collisions. Double Take-Home Quiz 9/10 due today.

Wednesday 10/15: Totally Inelastic Collisions. Example: The Yugo and the Cement Truck. Head-on Collisions. Rear-end Collisions. (The Non-Collision -- if the car following is going slower, it isn't going to run into the car ahead. PTPBIP.)

Thursday 10/16: What happens in a wreck. How airbags work. Totally
Elastic Collision - since the objects colliding don't stick together, they
each have final velocities. Therefore knowing only the masses and the
initial velocities doesn't provide enough equations for the number of
unknowns. In a T.E.C., K.E. is also conserved. The general problem results
in a lot of algebra -- takes too long for PHYS-107. Two special cases when
masses are equal. (1) If Object 2 is at rest, then during collision,
Object 1 transfers all momentum and K.E. to Object 2. (2) If both objects
have same speed in a head-on collision, then they rebound with same speed
in opposite direction. Demo: The Executive Time Waster - five identical
balls suspended from a frame. How do we know that this toy isn't *perfectly*
elastic? Just listen... each collision makes a CLICK. It takes energy to
make a sound -- that energy is lost from the K.E. Therefore not quite
totally elastic. Note: We do NOT want our cars to have Totally Elastic
Collisions -- the whiplash on our fragile bodies would be awful. Instead,
our cars are designed to crumple and "die" for us.

Friday 10/17: What's the opposite of a collision? An explosion. Or recoil. Example: A pitcher on ice skates at rest -- when he hurls a fastball to the right, he goes to the left. Total momentum of the system remains constant (in this case, zero). Up until now, our objects really haven't had any dimensions. Extended Objects: Mass occupies a volume and shape. Mass-to-Volume Ratio (Density). NOTE: Do not confuse the Density of the Materials with the Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the OBJECT. Quiz 11 take home, due Tuesday 21 October 2003.

Monday 10/20: Extended Objects: Mass occupies a volume and shape. Three Classical States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas. Combinations: Condensed Matter (covers both Solids and Liquids) and Fluids (covers both Liquids and Gasses). Two Extreme States of Matter: Plasma (electrons stripped off, high temperature), Cryogenics (extreme cold, odd behavior). Pressure = Force / Area. SI unit: Pascal (Pa). Example: Squeezing a thumbtack between thumb and forefinger. The perils of SCUBA diving. One Atmosphere standard air pressure = 1 atm. = 14.7 psi = 101,300 Pa. Pressure at a depth due to supporting the column of liquid above. Absolute (total) Pressure vs. Gauge Pressure (difference between two readings).

Tuesday 10/21: "Physics Does Not Suck" (See D.O. Wyble's 3 Rules for Physics Students) - To draw water up a straw, one decreases the air pressure in your mouth by geometry and the outside air pressure PUSHES the water up the straw. Floating on the Surface: Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the boat < Mass-to-Volume Ratio of the Liquid. Why Boats Float. Example: Front lab table as a 250 kg boat with 4.00 m³ volume. Buoyant Force = Weight of the Boat = Weight of the Water Displaced by the Submerged Part of the Boat.

Wednesday 10/22: Exam 2 (rescheduled from 10/20).

Thursday 10/23: Archimedes and Eureka! (I found it!) Smooth Fluid Flow. Bernoulli's Equation and the Continuity Equation. Water Tower and the Faucet Problem. Why the water tower needs a vent.

Friday 10/24: Bernoulli continued. Finish the water tower problem. Example: The aspirator -- a vacuum pump with no moving parts. Example: Air flow around a wing. (Faster air over top means lower pressure on top, so net force is up -- Lift.) Example: The Physics of why the shower curtains wants to cling to your leg.

Monday 10/27: DVD: *Titanic* -- Pressure 2½ miles down. Some
reasons the "unsinkable" RMS Titanic sank.

Tuesday 10/28: Temperature & Heat. Heat = Energy. Two objects in thermal contact, exchange heat energy, Q. If net heat exchange is zero, the two objects are at the same temperature. Temperature Scales: °F, °C and K (Kelvins).

Wednesday 10/29: Linear Expansion: Most objects expand when heated, shrink when cooled. Length Expansion. Example: One 39 ft. (12.0m) steel rail expands 5.88 mm from winter to summer, but that's 0.75 meters for every mile of railroad track. Expansion joints. I-57 in Chicago and the expanding asphault. Question: Does the material expand into a hole when heated, or does the hole expand? Double-Quiz Q12-13 Take Home, now due Friday 31 October 2003.

Thursday 10/30: Return Exam 2. Volume Expansion of Solids and Liquids. Ideal Gas Law (PV/T = constant).

Friday 10/31: The Laws of Thermodynamics. Heat Energy (Q). The Heat Engine. Hand out first part of Topic 2 -- The Blue Sheets. Hand out next Sample Exam 3.

Monday 11/03: The Heat Engine and Three Efficiencies (Actual, Carnot and 2nd Law). Fuel Economy (miles per gallon) is not an Efficiency. There is no conspiracy to keep big 100 m.p.g. cars out of our hands. To use less fuel, do less work.

Tuesday 11/04: Heat Energy (Q) and Temperature Change & Phase Change. Water has a high Latent Heat of Vaporization: (1) Long boiling time, (2) Firemen use it to take heat energy out of the fire zone.

Wednesday 11/05: Microscopic theory of temperature -- vibration and motion of atoms and molecules (P.E. + K.E.). Mass on a spring, Hooke's Law (Spring force) is a second conservative force, which we can also write as a P.E. Waves: Single Pulse vs. Repeating Waves. The motion of the material vs. the apparent motion of the wave. For Repeating Waves, we have a Repeat Length (wavelength) and a Repeat Time (Period). Frequency = 1/Period. Wave speed = frequency x wavelength. Demonstration: the Slinky shows both longintudinal (string type) and transverse waves (sound type). Standing Waves on a string. Fundamental, First Overtone, Second Overtone, etc. Demonstration: First and higher overtones on a string driven by a saber saw.

Thursday 11/06: Power = Work / time. Power is rate that work can be done. 1 horsepower = 1 h.p. = the amount of work that one man, one horse and one plow can do in a day. The Blue Sheets (Topic 2) -- Collecting your data. Waves and Resonance continued. Constructive and Destructive Interference. Some accoustical considerations of our Lecture Halls (1110 and 1104 Rood), basketball arenas for rock concerts and Carnegie Hall in New York City. Q14 or Q14B in-class quiz. Double-quiz Q15/16 take-home, due Monday 10 November 2003.

Friday 11/07: Standing Waves in a tube. Tuning forks, resonance tubes. Beat frequency.

Monday 11/10: The speed of sound in air. Sonic Booms and other
shockwaves. Bullwhip story.
REMINDER: Monday 17 November 2003 is (1) date of Exam 3 and (2) last day
to turn in a Draft Paper for quick evaluation (this is *not*
required). Q17 in-class. Q15/16 due.

Tuesday 11/11: The range of "normal" human hearing: 20Hz-20,000Hz (10 octaves). Artilleryman's ear -- mid-range hearing loss. dB = decibel, a logarhythmic scale. VHS Video: Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster (1940).

Wednesday 11/12: The Realization that Electricity and Magnetism were part of the same Electromagnetic Force was a great triumph of 19th century physics. Franklin's One-Fluid Model of Electricity. Real Electric Charges. Two charges: like charges repel, unlike (opposite) charges attract. Coulomb's Law looks like Newton's Law of Universal Gravity.

Thursday 11/13: 1 Coulomb of charge is very large. The number and value of the positive (proton) and negative (electron) charges in a nickel coin. Four Fundamental Forces in Nature: Gravity, E & M, Weak Nuclear Force, Strong Nuclear Force. The Hydrogen Atom: Gravity loses to Electric Force by a factor of 200 million dectillion (!!!). Likewise, the two protons in the nucleus of the Helium Atom require the Strong Nuclear Force to overcome the 231 N electric repulsion. Q18 Take-Home, Due TUESDAY, 18 November 2003.

Friday 11/14: Gravitational, Electric and Magnetic Forces are not Contact Forces - Require Fields. Electric Fields. Maximum E-field in air, E-max. Charge accumulates on tips of conductors. Lightning rods. Reminder: Exam 3 is Monday 17 November 2003 at Noon in 1104 Rood Hall.

Monday 11/17: Exam 3. Final day to bring in Draft versions of Topic 1 Book Reports (this is NOT required).

Tuesday 11/18: Electric Potential (Voltage). Spark gaps. Voltage can be measured, then used to find strength of E-field. SI units: E-field is (N/C) or (V/m) - both work. D.C. and A.C. circuits. Ohm's Law. The Simplest Circuit: Battery, wires, load (resistor).

Wednesday 11/19: (How exciting -- my first real flat tire. AAA comes to the rescue, only 16 minutes late to class.) Ohm's Law and Power Law. The U.S. Navy and "Ohm's 3 Laws". It's not the voltage that is harmful, it's the current. The "magic" number: 11 milliamps (11mA = 0.011 A) conducted across your chest will kill you.

Thursday 11/20: The Simplest Circuit. Resistance by geometry. If R=constant over operating range, then we say the material is "ohmic". If R is not constant, it is "non-ohmic". Example: Because of the temperature dependence of R, the filament of an incandescent light bulb has a very different R when lit or dark. Therefore measuring the resistance of a light bulb with an ohm meter is useless. Kammerleigh Onnes 1916 work on extending the R vs. T curve toward T = 0 Kelvin. Discovered Superconductivity, where R=0 identically. We usually treat the wires in a circuit as having R=0, but they usually are not superconductors. Series and Parallel Resistors. Discussion of Significant Figures again. Two devices connected together in a circuit can only be connected two ways: series or parallel. In Series, same current, share voltage. Equivalent resistance is always larger. In Parallel, same voltage, share current. Equivalent resistance is always smaller. Resistor Network Reduction. First day to turn in Topic 1 Book Reports. Q20 Take-Home Quiz. Due Monday 24 November 2003.

Friday 11/21: Having reduced the resistor network started on Thursday, go back and fill in the table for V = I R and then P = I V. Resistor R1 sees the largest current and dissipates the largest amount of energy per second (Power in Watts). This means it is also the most vulnerable. (Story of radio "repair" call from 4,000,000,000 miles.)

Monday 11/24: Final deadline for Topic 1 Book Reports (without Draft copy evaluations) by 5pm today. I have added Exam Solutions for X1, X2 and (soon) X3 to the class webpage -- these are in Adobe Acrobat .PDF format, so you have to have the Acrobat Reader (free), but you will be able to view, magnify and print out the solutions if you so choose. Real batteries consist of a "perfect" battery (Electromotive force = emf) in series with a small internal resistance, r. As chemical reaction in battery runs down, the internal resistance increases. Tip for weak car battery on cold day: Run headlights for 30 to 90 seconds. High internal resistance will warm the battery and make it more efficient. Proper procedure for jump starting a car. (And why doing it wrong ranges from dangerous to deadly.)

Tuesday 11/25: "Magnetism is just like Electricity, only different." Real Magnets are dipoles (North and South ends, linked). Break a magnet in half, and you either get two new magnets -- or nothing. So far, there is no evidence that there are Magnetic Monopoles (magnetic charges: isolated North or South poles). Rules similar to Electric Charges: Unlike poles attract, like poles repel. 1st Sample Final Exam pages handed out. The Electromagnetic Wave travels at the speed of light. c = 300,000,000 m/s = 186,000 miles/sec. Q20 Take-Home now due today.

Wednesday 11/26: WMU Classes end at NOON -- since the Noon section of PHYS-107 is cancelled, the 8am section is cancelled as well, to keep them in synch.

Thursday 11/27: THANKSGIVING DAY HOLIDAY - No Class.

Friday 11/28: No class.

Monday 12/1: Return X3. Visible Light: ROYGBIV. Electromagnetic Spectrum (ROYGBIV, UV). 2nd Sample Final Exam pages handed out.

Tuesday 12/2: Electromagnetic Spectrum (ELF, Radio, Microwaves, IR, ROYGBIV, UV, X-rays, gamma rays). Q21 in-class quiz.

Wednesday 12/3: Optics: Geometric Optics (empirical) and Physical Optics (more wave and fieldlike). Ray Tracing: Rays from a spherical source become essentially parallel rays when you are far away. The Law of Reflection. Rough surfaces. Corner and Corner Cube reflectors. The Optical Lever -- move a mirror by 10° and the reflected ray moves by 20°. (Dr. Phil's theory on the origin of "seven years of bad luck for breaking a mirror".) The Law of Refraction - Snell's Law. Light bent at the interface between two media, because the speed of light changes in the media. If going from an high index of refraction media to a lower index media, have a chance for Total Internal Reflection (T.I.R.). Thin Lenses. Positive, biconvex, converging lens. Concentrating sunlight: burning paper or popping ants? Real image formed by passing rays through a positive thin lens. Blue Sheets (Topic 2) due today by 5pm (or turn in at beginning of class on Thursday).

Thursday 12/4: A brief look at Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Handouts: Dr. Phil's Periodic Table. All-Titanic Sample Final Exam Pages. Q23 Take-Home, due at FINAL EXAM.

Friday 12/5: REVIEW.