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(GRAY text, no LINKS) OpenStax College Physics ©2014 Table of Contents Preface . - 7 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics . - 11 Physics: An Introduction - 12 Physical Quantities and Units - 18 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures - 25 Approximation - 29 2 Kinematics - 35 Displacement - 36 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems - 38 Time, Velocity, and Speed - 39 Acceleration - 43 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension - 51 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics . - 61 Falling Objects - 62 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion - 69 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics - 87 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction 88 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods - 90 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods - 97 Projectile Motion - 103 Addition of Velocities - 110 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion - 127 Development of Force Concept - 128 Newtons First Law of Motion: Inertia - 129 Newtons Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System 130 Newtons Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 136 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces - 138 Problem-Solving Strategies - 146 Further Applications of Newtons Laws of Motion - 148 Extended Topic: The Four Basic ForcesAn Introduction - 154 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity - 167 Friction - 168 Drag Forces - 173 ==Elasticity: Stress and Strain - 177 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation - 191 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity - 192 Centripetal Acceleration - 195 Centripetal Force - 198 ==Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force - 202 Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation - 205 Satellites and Keplers Laws: An Argument for Simplicity - 211 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources - 225 Work: The Scientific Definition - 226 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem - 228 Gravitational Potential Energy - 232 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy - 237 Nonconservative Forces - 240 Conservation of Energy - 244 Power - 247 ==Work, Energy, and Power in Humans - 251 ==World Energy Use - 253 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions - 265 Linear Momentum and Force - 266 Impulse - 268 Conservation of Momentum - 270 ==Elastic Collisions in One Dimension - 273 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension - 275 ==Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions - 279 ==Introduction to Rocket Propulsion - 282 ==9 Statics and Torque - 293 ==The First Condition for Equilibrium - 294 ==The Second Condition for Equilibrium - 295 ==Stability - 299 ==Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies - 302 ==Simple Machines - 305 ==Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints - 308 ==10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum - 321 ==Angular Acceleration - 322 ==Kinematics of Rotational Motion - 326 ==Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia - 330 ==Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited - 334 ==Angular Momentum and Its Conservation - 340 ==Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions - 345 ==Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum - 348 11 Fluid Statics - 361 What Is a Fluid? - 362 Density - 363 Pressure - 365 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid - 367 Pascals Principle - 370 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement - 372 Archimedes Principle - 375 ==Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action - 381 ==Pressures in the Body - 388 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications - 401 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity - 402 Bernoullis Equation - 404 The Most General Applications of Bernoullis Equation - 408 ==Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuilles Law - 411 ==The Onset of Turbulence - 417 ==Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid - 418 ==Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes - 420 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws - 433 Temperature - 434 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids - 440 The Ideal Gas Law - 446 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature - 451 Phase Changes - 457 ==Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling . - 462 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods - 473 Heat - 474 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity - 475 Phase Change and Latent Heat - 480 ==Heat Transfer Methods - 485 ==Conduction - 486 ==Convection - 490 ==Radiation - 494 15 Thermodynamics - 509 The First Law of Thermodynamics - 511 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes - 515 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency - 522 Carnots Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated - 527 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators - 531 ==Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy - 535 ==Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation - 541 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves - 555 Hookes Law: Stress and Strain Revisited - 556 Period and Frequency in Oscillations - 560 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion - 561 ==The Simple Pendulum - 565 ==Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator - 567 ==Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion - 569 ==Damped Harmonic Motion - 572 ==Forced Oscillations and Resonance - 575 Waves - 577 Superposition and Interference - 579 ==Energy in Waves: Intensity - 583 17 Physics of Hearing - 595 Sound - 596 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength - 598 Sound Intensity and Sound Level - 601 ==Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms - 604 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns - 609 Hearing - 615 Ultrasound - 620 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field - 633 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge - 635 Conductors and Insulators - 639 Coulombs Law - 643 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited - 644 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges - 646 ==Electric Forces in Biology - 649 ==Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium - 650 Earths Electric Field ==Applications of Electrostatics - 654 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field - 669 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference - 670 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field - 674 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge - 677 Equipotential Lines - 679 ==Capacitors and Dielectrics - 681 ==Capacitors in Series and Parallel - 687 ==Energy Stored in Capacitors - 690 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law - 701 Current - 702 Ohms Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits - 707 Resistance and Resistivity - 709 Electric Power and Energy - 713 Alternating Current versus Direct Current - 716 Electric Hazards and the Human Body - 720 ==Nerve ConductionElectrocardiograms - 723 21 Circuits and DC Instruments - 739 Resistors in Series and Parallel - 740 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage - 748 ==Kirchhoffs Rules - 754 ==DC Voltmeters and Ammeters - 758 ==Null Measurements - 762 ==DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors - 765 22 Magnetism - 779 Magnets - 780 ==Ferromagnets and Electromagnets - 782 ==Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines - 785 ==Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field - 786 ==Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications - 787 ==The Hall Effect - 791 ==Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor - 794 ==Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters - 796 ==Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Amperes Law - 798 ==Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors - 802 ==More Applications of Magnetism - 803 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies - 817 ==Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux - 819 ==Faradays Law of Induction: Lenzs Law - 820 ==Motional Emf - 823 ==Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping - 826 ==Electric Generators - 829 ==Back Emf - 832 Transformers - 832 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices - 836 ==Inductance - 840 ==RL Circuits - 843 ==Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive - 845 ==RLC Series AC Circuits - 848 24 Electromagnetic Waves - 865 ==Maxwells Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed - 866 ==Production of Electromagnetic Waves - 868 The Electromagnetic Spectrum - 870 ==Energy in Electromagnetic Waves - 882 25 Geometric Optics - 891 The Ray Aspect of Light - 892 The Law of Reflection - 893 The Law of Refraction - 895 Total Internal Reflection - 899 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms - 904 Image Formation by Lenses - 908 ==Image Formation by Mirrors - 919 ==26 Vision and Optical Instruments - 933 ==Physics of the Eye - 934 ==Vision Correction - 937 ==Color and Color Vision - 940 ==Microscopes - 943 ==Telescopes - 948 ==Aberrations - 951 27 Wave Optics - 959 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference - 960 ==Huygens's Principle: Diffraction - 961 ==Youngs Double Slit Experiment - 963 ==Multiple Slit Diffraction - 967 ==Single Slit Diffraction - 971 ==Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion - 974 ==Thin Film Interference - 978 ==Polarization - 982 ==*Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light - 989 28 Special Relativity - 1001 Einsteins Postulates - 1002 Simultaneity And Time Dilation - 1004 Length Contraction - 1009 ==Relativistic Addition of Velocities - 1013 Relativistic Momentum - 1017 ==Relativistic Energy - 1019 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics - 1033 Quantization of Energy - 1034 ==The Photoelectric Effect - 1036 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum - 1039 ==Photon Momentum - 1045 The Particle-Wave Duality - 1049 The Wave Nature of Matter - 1050 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - 1053 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed - 1057 30 Atomic Physics - 1067 Discovery of the Atom - 1068 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei - 1069 Bohrs Theory of the Hydrogen Atom - 1075 ==X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications - 1081 ==Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations - 1085 ==The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization - 1092 ==Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization - 1094 ==Quantum Numbers and Rules - 1096 ==The Pauli Exclusion Principle - 1100 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics - 1117 Nuclear Radioactivity - 1118 Radiation Detection and Detectors - 1121 Substructure of the Nucleus - 1123 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws - 1127 Half-Life and Activity - 1133 ==Binding Energy - 1138 ==Tunneling - 1142 ==32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics - 1153 ==Medical Imaging and Diagnostics - 1154 ==Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation - 1157 ==Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation - 1162 ==Food Irradiation - 1164 ==Fusion - 1165 ==Fission - 1170 ==Nuclear Weapons - 1174 ==33 Particle Physics - 1187 ==The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited - 1188 The Four Basic Forces - 1189 ==Accelerators Create Matter from Energy - 1191 ==Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws - 1194 ==Quarks: Is That All There Is? - 1198 ==GUTs: The Unification of Forces - 1205 34 Frontiers of Physics - 1215 Cosmology and Particle Physics - 1216 ==General Relativity and Quantum Gravity - 1222 ==Superstrings - 1227 ==Dark Matter and Closure - 1227 ==Complexity and Chaos - 1230 High-temperature Superconductors - 1231 Some Questions We Know to Ask - 1233 A Atomic Masses - 1241 B Selected Radioactive Isotopes - 1247 C Useful Information - 1251 D Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation - 1257 Index - 1268 End Page - - - - - - 1273
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ISBN-10 1938168003 ISBN-13 978-1-938168-00-0