*Updated: 04 May 2010 Tuesday.*

Your Pre-Final Grades can be seen here.

- FINALS WEEK!
- If you know your 5-digit PID number from Q1, then your Pre-Final Grades can be seen here.
**IMPORTANT: If you looked at your current course grades before 1:30pm on Monday, there was a formula error in the Quiz grade calculation -- it has now been fixed. Apologies all around. -- Dr. Phil**

Monday 4/26: Office Hours.

Tuesday 4/27: Office Hours. FINAL EXAM 2:45-4:45pm (2 hours) [PHYS-2070(15) 2pm]

Wednesday 4/28: Office Hours.

Thursday 4/29: Office Hours. FINAL EXAM 12:30-2:30pm (2 hours) [PHYS-2070(14) Noon]

Friday 4/30: Office Hours.

Monday 5/3: Office Hours.

Tuesday 5/4: Grades due at Noon.

Monday 1/11: Class begins. Introduction to Dr. Phil. Distribute Syllabus.

- Week 1 Checklist.

Tuesday 1/12: Electricity & Magentism are related -- one of the great
triumphs of 19th century Physics was the realization that Electricity and
Magnetism were two sides of the same coin. The Greeks. **Moby Dick** by
Herman Melville -- gold coin, lightning and the reversal of the ship's compass
needle. Static electricity. The Two-Fluid Model of Electricity. Franklin's
One-Fluid Model of Electricity.
Occaam's Razor. The
simple hydrogen atom -- whatever charge is, the charge on the electron (-e) and
the proton (+e) exactly cancel. The Electric Force
between two point charges, Coulomb's Law looks like
Newton's Law of Universal Gravity.

Wednesday 1/13: Real Electric Charges. Two charges: like charges repel, unlike (opposite) charges attract. 1 Coulomb of charge is an enormous amount of charge. 1 Coulomb of charge is an enormous amount of charge. Two 1.00 C charges separated by 1.00 meters have a force of nine-billion Newtons acting on each other. "Action at a distance" -- Gravity and the Electric Force are not contact forces. The Electric Force between two point charges, Coulomb's Law looks like Newton's Law of Universal Gravity. Four Fundamental Forces in Nature: Gravity, E & M, Weak Nuclear Force, Strong Nuclear Force. The Hydrogen Atom: Gravity loses to Electric Force by a factor of 200 million dectillion (!!!). The Helium Atom: Putting more than one proton in the nucleus produces enormous forces on the tiny protons -- Need the Neutron and the Strong Nuclear Force (!!!).

FYI: Handout: SI Prefixes and Dr. Phil's Simplified Significant Figures. List of Topics covered in PHYS-2050 when Dr. Phil taught it last.

Thursday 1/14: Demo these Class Web Pages,
discuss Formulas Cards and Four pages of
Topic 1 assignment handed out. (Webpage
here -- Full 28-page Handout as PDF File --
Searchable HTML Page ). Finding the net
vector electric force F_{E} for a system of point charges. Remember: In
PHYS-2070, Looking at Symmetry and Zeroes (problems where the answer is zero)
as a way of solving problems.

Friday 1/15: Review of vectors and vector forces. Review of vector notation for components and Standard Form. Right Triangles and Adding and subtracting vectors: Analytical method. (Check to make sure your calculator is set for Degrees mode. Try cos 45° = sin 45° = 0.7071) Why arctangent is a stupid function on your calculator. Solving a vector Electric Force problem when there isn't symmetry to render the problem zero. The importance of "Showing All Work". Using checks to confirm you're on the right track as you solve a problem. Q1 was an in-class Attendance and Check-In form given on Friday 15 January 2010. If you missed class, then you should download quiz Q1A here, fill it out and turn it in to Dr. Phil for 8000 points. (You won't get the attendance points for the class you missed.) Q2 is a Take-Home quiz, due on Tuesday 19 January 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- REMINDER: No Class on Monday 1/18 due to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day activities on campus.
- NOTE: If you are using the same computer to access the class web page or these lecture notes, you might want to hit the Refresh button if you don't see any updates. Some browsers tend to use a cached copy of the webpage rather than checking to see if there is an updated page.

Monday 1/18: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Observance -- No Classes.

- Week 2 checklist.

Tuesday 1/19: Non-point charge systems -- Putting a charge on an extended
object requires us to know something about the material, in addition to the
dimensions and geometry of the extended object. Conductors (metals) versus
non-conductors (insulators). Conduction electrons in metals -- free to move
around. Insulator electrons very hard to move around. Semi-Conductors sit in
the middle. Sometimes they conduct and sometimes they don't. This means they
act like a switch or valve, and this is the basis for the entire electronics
semi-conductor industry. Charging a conductor by induction. How does
q_{1} know that q_{2} is there? -- "Action at a
Distance" -- Gravity and the Electric Force are not contact forces. The
mathematical construct of the Electric Field. E is not an observable quantity.
(Side example: Methods of measuring speed v, do not directly measure speed v.)
Electric Field is a vector. F_{E} = q E. For a point charge, E = k
q_{1} /r^{2}. Q3 is a Take-Home quiz handed out on Tuesday 19
January 2010, and due on Friday 22 January 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- If you weren't in class on Friday, be sure to print out a copy of Quiz 1A and turn it in, as well as the Short form of the Topic 1 Handout.
- Physics Help Room (0077 Rood) is now open. Dr. Phil's Help Room office hour is Fridays at 11am.

Wednesday 1/20: Electric Field is a vector. F_{E} = q E. For a point
charge, E = k q_{1} /r^{2}. SI units for E-field: (N/C).
Strength of E-field is important, in part because in air there is a limit to
how big E can get. At breakdown, the E-field is large enough to start ripping
electrons from gas molecules and the positive ions go one way, the electrons go
another, and then we get a "spark" and no longer are static.
E_{max} in air is 3,000,000 N/C. E-field lines radiate *away* from
a positive point charge; converge *towards* a negative point charge. If
the universe is charge neutral, can have all E-field lines from + charges
terminating on - charges.Why use E-fields, when you need the force F = q E
anyway? Because it allows us to examine the environment without needing another
charge. E-field lines allow us to qualitatively sketch what happens when two
charges are near to each other. (1) +q and -q, (2) +q and +q. Very close to
each point charge, the E-field lines are radial outward, evenly spaced. In the
system, the E-field lines interact with each other -- but E-field lines can
never cross. Long range, the system of point charges looks like a single net
charge. The density of E-field lines in an area gives you an indication of the
strength of the E-field line. The numbers of E-field lines attached to a point
charge is proportional to the charge. E-field lines radiate away from positive
charges and terminate on negative charges. (3) +2q and -q. First Sample Exam 1
handed out. (Click here and
here and here for a copy.)

- Note that Sample Exams are for your use -- they are NOT to be turned in.

Thursday 1/21: So far we've looked at Electric Forces and Fields from discrete charges. Now we will look at extended continuous and uniform charges. Direct integration of Electric Force and Electric Field are similar, so we'll just go over direct integration of the E-field. Charge distributions -- lamda (linear charge density, C/m), sigma (surface charge density, C/m²), rho (volume charge density, C/m³). Note the similarity to mass distributions from PHYS-2050. Examples: Rod in-line with line from point P (1-dimensional integration). Rod perpendicular to line from point P. Note that in all these cases, we can predict the long range behavior (E-field behaves as a single point net charge), and anticipate the close-in short range behavior. Check Serway's examples (that's your textbook) -- watch out that his notation may be different.

- Note on current take-home Q3: In part (a) we find the vector E-field at the point P. In part (b) we place a new charge at the point P and we want to find the vector Electric Force acting on this new charge.
- Solution to Q2 has been posted on bottom of the class webpage.

Friday 1/22: Review of 2-D and 3-D Integration. Rectangular (area, volume), Polar (circumference, area), Cylindrical (volume, surface area). Spherical Co-ordinates (volume, surface area, hollow volume). Q4 is a Take-Home quiz handed out on Friday 22 January 2010, and due on Tuesday 26 January 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- Dr. Phil will be at ConFusion this weekend -- a science fiction & fantasy convention in Troy MI. May be difficult to get me on email or Facebook before Sunday evening.

- Week 3 checklist.

Monday 1/25: Direct integration of Electric Field continued. Thin ring of charge to center point P. (Symmetry!) Thin ring of charge perpendicular to line from point P. Note that in all these cases, we can predict the long range behavior (E-field behaves as a single point net charge), and anticipate the close-in short range behavior. Check Serway's examples (that's your textbook) -- watch out that his notation may be different. Disk of charge to center point P. Harder to see 1/r² dependence at long range, but it is clear that E goes to zero.

- Reminder that in Q4 parts (a) and (c), you are NOT asked to do the direct integration. Rather you can use the results of the direct integration we did in class as an equation -- something which should be on your formula card.

Tuesday 1/26: Electric Flux: Electric field times Area. Analogy of a bag or box around a light, captures all the light rays no matter the size or shape. Use known E-field of a point charge to evaluate what the Electric Flux must be equal to. Review of Dot Product. Gauss' Law for Electricity. Using Gauss' Law for Point Charge, Conducting Sphere (case 1: r < R). Note that E-field is zero inside a spherical conducting sphere (solid or hollow). If the Earth were hollow, there'd be no gravity inside the Earth either, besides being zero-gee at center of core. Second Sample Exam 1 handed out. (Click here for a copy.)

- Q5 will be handed out on Wednesday and due Friday.
*Didn't have time to copy it before the Noon class, then noticed a typo and have to print out a new master copy.*

Wednesday 1/27: Gauss' Law for Electricity.
Using Gauss' Law for Point Charge, Conducting
Sphere, Insulating Sphere, Infinite Line of Charge.
Gauss' Law for Infinite Sheet of Charge. Q5 is
a Take-Home quiz handed out Wednesday 27 January 2010, and ~~due on
Friday 29 January 2010~~ now due on Monday 1
February 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- Note about the Facebook Group: If your Facebook username doesn't look like the name WMU uses for registration, then Dr. Phil won't know it's you and won't let you in. So if you have some sort of Facebook alias name, send Dr. Phil an email saying, "Hey, User-X is actually Student-Y in your PHYS-2070 class!" and then you'll get let in.
- Q5 Comment: This is for an insulated thick-walled cylinder. In order to do some of the parts, you have to find the volume charge density, rho = Q / V. The volume of a thick-walled cylinder is the outside volume minus the inside volume.

Thursday 1/28: P.E. is minus the Work. Potential V is similar, but the
integral is done on E-field not Force. More importantly the Potential V is an
observable quantity. Find components of E by negative of the partial derivative
of Electric Potential function V. It will turn out that charge accumulates on
the tips of long pointy things -- applies in why some things seem to always get
hit by lightning (golfers, people standing in an open field, church steeples).
E_{max} = 3,000,000 N/C = 3,000,000 V/m, in dry air. Ben Franklin and
lightning rods. Why your hair stands up warning you that you are getting
charged.

- Q5 deadline extended to Monday 1 February 2010.
- Q5 Comment: Think carefully about the Gauss' Law example from class with the infinite line of charge from Wednesday and Thursday's example of the finite length rod of charge. You have to work out areas, volumes, charge densities, charges, etc.

Friday 1/29: Handy chart of the four quantities: F_{E} (vector, 2
charges), E (vector, 1 charge), U_{E} (scalar, 2 charges), V (scalar, 1
charge) .Simplified equation V = E d. (But remember that it's really *delta-V
= - E d .*) Example: Lightning. Equipotential surfaces -- lines of constant
Electric Potential (voltage). Analogy: Topographic maps, the equipotential
lines are like the altitude contour lines. A skier's line of maximum descent
down a mountain corresponds to the E-field lines. Conductor in equilibrium is
an equipotential throughout. In electrostatic equilibrium, E = 0 inside a
charged conductor, but V = constant, not V = 0 automatically. Why charge
accumulates on the tips of "pointy things". Model a conducting blob
with a blunt end and a pointy end, sort of like a piece of candy corn, by a
large conducting sphere and a smaller conducting sphere, connected together by
a wire so they are all equipotentials, i.e. V = constant. For a charged sphere,
same as a point charge: V = kq/r. While the charge on the tip is less than the
charge on the rest, the surface charge density, sigma = q / Area, is much
higher. *NOTE: The book is effectively closed for Exam 1 topics now, except
for finding V by direct integration, which you might want to look at in the
textbook before Monday's class. Remember, V really is a scalar quantity and not
a vector.*

- Web comic xkcd on NASA's decision to
declare the Martian rover
*Spirit*a fixed platform science station. (Can't get it unstuck from a sandtrap.)

- Week 4 Checklist. UPDATED After Exam 1.

Monday 2/1: Finding V by direct integration. Direct integration of V for a circular line of charge -- V really is a scalar, not a vector. In electrostatic equilibrium, E = 0 inside a charged conductor, but V = constant, not V = 0 automatically. Exam 1 Review.

- NOTE: Direct integration of V will
*not*be on Exam 1, though it may show up on the Final Exam.

Tuesday 2/2: Exam 1.

- If you missed Exam 1, you need to come by Dr. Phil's office at 11am, 1pm or 3pm to take a make-up exam, or contact Dr. Phil by email or phone to arrange a time for a make-up exam.

Wednesday 2/3: Two things about the electric potential, V: (1) Sketch of
equipotential lines and perpendicular E-field lines for the irregular pointy
conductor with charge Q. Conductor in equilibrium is an equipotential
throughout. Equipotential lines, where V is constant, are always perpendicular
to E-field lines. (2) Direct integration of V for a whole and a half of a
circular line of charge -- V really is a scalar, not a vector. **New Unit:
**Moving from Field Theory to Applications leading to Devices. Start of
Capacitors and Capacitance. The Capacitor stores charge +Q on one plate and -Q
on second plate, stores energy in the E-field between the plates. This is
different from a battery, which has energy stored in its chemical reaction.
Stories: Dr. Phil & the camera flash. US Navy seaman vs. the tank capacitor
(Cap-2, Seaman-0). Capacitor Equation. SI unit
for Capacitance is the Farad. 1F is a large capacitor. Usually deal with
µF (microfarad = 1/1,000,000th of a Farad) and pF (picofarad =
1/1,000,000,000,000th of a Farad). Circuit diagrams represent the elements of a
circuit. So far: battery, wires, capacitor.

Thursday 2/4: Apply Gauss' Law for Electricity to the constant E-field of
the Parallel Plate Capacitor. We now have an
"operational equation", true for all capacitors, and a "by
geometry" equation for the special case of the parallel plate capacitor.
Work to assemble charges on a capacitor = Energy stored in the capacitor = U =
½CV² . Energy density, u_{E} = U/vol. =
½(epsilon-naught)E² . While this was derived for the parallel plate
case, it turns out to be true in general. Two devices connected together in a
circuit can only be connected two ways: series or parallel. In
Series, same charge, share voltage. Equivalent
capacitor is always smaller. NOTE: Remember to take the last reciprocal! In
Parallel, same voltage, share charge.
Equivalent capacitor is always larger. Q6 is a Take-Home quiz due on Monday 8
February 2010, in class or by 5pm. Q7 is a Take-Home quiz due on Tuesday 9
February 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- Note that the energy density, u
_{E}, can be important in the real world, because there may be limits. For example, if a parallel plate capacitor is in air, then E < E_{max}. This business of limits to energy density is something that is frequently wrong in science fiction movies and TV, where you have near infinite power supplies and batteries on devices, especially powerful weapons, which seem to run on and on forever, like the Eveready Energizer Bunny. No -- can't happen like that. - NOTE: Q7 is being handed out on Thursday as a convenience, but we haven't
yet covered HOW we want you to solve this problem. Especially important that
students who know circuits and/or are taking or have taken an ECT circuits
course,
*should not try to solve this with your circuits course methods*.

Friday 2/5: Capacitor Network Reduction problem. Carefully analyze the network, reducing series or parallel capacitors to equivalent capacitors, redrawing the circuit each time. Use table with columns for Q = C V. By going back through the intermediate diagrams, it is possible to know every value of every capacitor in the network. Extend the example in class with a fourth column, U=½CV², and find the energy stored in the equivalent capacitor and the sum of the energy stored in all four of the real capacitors -- if they agree, then our analysis and calculations are correct -- the battery cannot tell the difference!

- NOTE: Filling in the table is a case where you might want to use 3 + 2 sig. figs., in order to get the ratios to come out really close in the end.
- Sunday is the Super Bowl -- whether you're interested in the game or not,
it may interfere with your weekend and your study times. (grin) So have fun,
but remember you have two take-home quizzes. You might take this opportunity to
try and get tickets to see
*Avatar*in 3-D IMAX in Grand Rapids. (double-grin)

- Week 5 Checklist.
- Moving Q7 Due Date to Thursday 11 February 2010, to avoid issues with weather on Tuesday and Wednesday.

Monday 2/8: Making a real capacitor. What if not filled with air? Filling
with conductor, must have at least one gap, otherwise will short outthe plates.
A conducting slab inside a parallel plate capacitor makes two capacitors in
series. Charge neutral slab stays charge neutral, but +Q of top plate attracts
-Q on top of slab, and -Q of bottom plate attracts +Q on bottom of slab.
Dielectrics -- an insulator where the +/- charge pairs are free to rotate, even
if they do not move. Dielectric constant (kappa) and Dielectric strength
(E-max). Dielectic constant increases capacitance over air gap. Dielectric
strength usually bigger than E_{max} in air. Both allow you to (a) make
bigger capacitors (or smaller for the same values) and (b) make non-hollow,
self-supporting components. Electrolytic capacitors -- must be connected into
the circuit with correct + and - polarity. Examples of the uses of capacitors
and dielectrics.

**NOTES on Q7**: Don't try to combine too many capacitors in one step. In general with these problems, it takes many steps. Each time you are finding 2 or maybe 3 capacitors which are in series or parallel. Usually you alternate between series and parallel. "We are making series and parallel connections based on the RULES (the connections of the plates), not whether they sort of look like they are in series or parallel." Remember, to be in SERIES, you must have the same charge ±Q on the plates of both capacitors. If there is a wire leading to another capacitor in between your two capacitors, they are NOT in series. To be in PARALLEL, they must have the same delta-V, which means that their + plates are connected together and their - plates are connected together, and there cannot be another capacitor in the way on either leg.

Tuesday 2/9: Examples of the uses of capacitors and dielectrics. Capacitive studfinder, uses edge effects of E-field from a capacitor to "see" the dielectric material behind the wall. Computer keyboards with switches which have "no moving parts". Electrostatics (equilibrium) to Electrodynamics (moving charges). Current defined: i = delta-Q/delta-t = dq/dt. The Simplest Circuit: Battery, wires, load (resistor). Resistance vs. Conductance. Ohm's Law: V=IR form. (Ohm's "3 Laws") We usually treat the wires in a circuit as having R=0, but they usually are not superconductors. Resistance is a function of temperature. Kammerleigh Onnes 1916 work on extending the R vs. T curve toward T = 0 Kelvin. Discovered Superconductivity, where R=0 identically.

Wednesday 2/10: **Dr. Phil's PHYS-2070 classes at
Noon and 2pm are canceled today**.

- NOTE: Dr. Phil is concerned about the Winter Storm Tuesday night into Wednesday morning. Be on the lookout for (a) WMU shutting down or (b) Dr. Phil unable to drive in and cancelling class for Wednesday. Thursday's forecast looks to be okay. (Dr. Phil is unwilling to trust the roads by tomorrow -- very icy and slippery on Tuesday, and the snow and wind hadn't even really started yet.)

Thursday 2/11: Joule Heating, Power Law: P = IV (also 3 forms). Resistance by geometry. R = rho (L / A), where rho = resistivity of the material, L = length and A = cross-sectional area. Continuing with Simple Circuits... Series and Parallel Resistors: Two devices connected together in a circuit can only be connected two ways: series or parallel. In Series, same current, share voltage. Equivalent resistance is always larger. In Parallel, same voltage, share current. Equivalent resistance is always smaller. Resistor Network Reduction. (Similar rules to Capacitor Network Reduction except "opposite".) For example given in class, Resistor R1 sees the largest current and dissipates the largest amount of energy per second (Power in Watts). This means it is also the most vulnerable. (Story of radio "repair" call from 4,000,000,000 miles.) Q8 is a Take-Home quiz handed out Thursday 11 February 2010, and due Tuesday 16 February 2010, in class or by 5pm.

Friday 2/12: Go over Q7 solution.
"Catch-up Lecture". (1) Discussion of microscopic theory of charges
in a conductor. Drift velocity is the very slow net movement of the electrons
moving randomly in the wire. See pp. 753-755. Drift velocity of electrons in
copper wire is about 2.23×10^{-4} m/s. This microscopic theory
becomes more important as we go to smaller and smaller circuit elements in our
microchips. Moore's Law.
(2) If R=constant over operating range, then we say the material is
"ohmic". If R is not constant, it is "non-ohmic". Example:
Because of the temperature dependence of R, the filament of an incandescent
light bulb has a very different R when lit or dark. Therefore measuring the
resistance of a light bulb with an ohm meter is useless. (3) What if R = 0?
Finish discussion of high temperature superconductors. "High
temperature" superconductors (liquid nitrogen temperature, not liquid
helium). The "Woodstock
of Physics" in 1987. (4)
Discuss power cords -- flexible but hot cords for hair dryers, why power cords
get recalled. (5) Real batteries consist of a "perfect" battery
(Electromotive force = emf) in series with a small internal resistance, r. As
chemical reaction in battery runs down, the internal resistance increases. Tip
for weak car battery on cold day: Run headlights for 30 to 90 seconds. High
internal resistance will warm the battery and make it more efficient. First
Sample Exam 2. (Click here and
here for a copy.)

- Week 6 checklist.

Monday 2/15: PRESIDENT'S DAY (Not a WMU holiday). Return X1. Real batteries consist of a "perfect" battery (Electromotive force = emf) in series with a small internal resistance, r. As chemical reaction in battery runs down, the internal resistance increases. Don't cut open batteries. Comments on different types of disposable (carbon-zinc, alkaline, lithium) and rechargable (Rayovac Renewal alkaline, NiCad, NiMH, Li-ion) batteries. Multi-cell batteries (6V lattern battery, 9V transistor/smoke alarm, 510V dry cell).

- Q9 may be an In-Class quiz on Tuesday 16 February 2010. Make sure your formula card(s) are up to date on resistors.

Tuesday 2/16: Not all circuits can be reduced by serial and parallel network analysis. Kirchhoff's Laws: (1) The sum of all currents in and out of any junction must be zero. (2) The sum of all voltage gains and voltage drops about any closed loop is zero. Practically speaking, if there are N junctions, then (1) will give you (N-1) unique equations, and if there are M loops that can be made in the circuit by going around the perimeter of each "puzzle piece", then (2) will give you sufficient unique equations. You will get the same number of equations as you unknown currents through the resistors. NOTE: EE students and those who have had ECT-2100 (?) may know a "better" way to solve Kirchhoff's problems. But the brute force algebra approach has the advantage of being based on the Physics, so has instructional value. Example in class had 3 equations in 3 unknowns. (Solution by brute force algebra here). Q9 in-class quiz on real batteries and internal resistance.

Wednesday 2/17: Other examples of systems which require Kirchhoff Laws. Sometimes a resistor has zero current, in which case it does not contribute to the circuit. Proper procedure for jump starting a car. (And why doing it wrong ranges from dangerous to deadly. Improper jump can result in hydrogen explosions, boiling sulfuric acid, etc.) RC series circuit. Use Kirchhoff's 2nd Law to get a loop equation for voltage gains and drops around charging capacitor. q=q(t) and i=i(t)=dq/dt means that we can use calculus to find the current through the resistor and the charge on the capacitor. Q10 Take-Home quiz, due Tuesday 23 February 2010, in class or by 5pm.

Thursday 2/18: Note that you can use Kirchhoff's law even when you CAN reduce a circuit by series and parallel network reduction. For example, our Q8 problem has three unknown currents (1 junction equation, 2 loop equations). Calculus derivation of q(t) for charging capacitor and discharing circuits. RC current i(t) will be the same in both cases. Who knew that (ohms) × (farads) = (seconds)? By time t=3RC, a charging capacitor will reach 95% of its top charge, or a discharging capacitor will be down to 5% of its original charge. Either way the current will be down to 5% of its maximum value. Second set of Sample Exam 2's handed out: (Click here and here for copies.)

Friday 2/19: **Measurement: **Building an ammeter or voltmeter --
non-digital version with a needle. The Galvanometer is a generic meter. It has
a resistance and the needle moves in response to a current through a tiny coil.
Since meters must be connected to the circuit, technically they change the
circuit. However, we will show that the design of an ammeter and a voltmeter
minimizes these changes. Ammeters measure current by connecting in series to
the circuit. Voltmeters measure potential difference by connecting in parallel
to the circuit. The Galvanometer is a generic meter. It has a resistance
*R _{G}* and the needle moves in response to a current through a
tiny coil. The full-scale deflection current,

*NOTE: The numbers we found for the 5.00 A ammeter and 5.00 volt voltmeter resistors were: r*_{s}= 0.001262 ohms and R_{v}= 49,940 ohms. The galvanometer had a resistance R_{G}= 63.1 ohms and a full-scale deflection current i_{FS}= 1.00 ×10^{-4}A. The high resistance wire we used for the shunt resistor in the ammeter had an R/L = 0.000147 ohm/cm. For I = 5.00 A and V = 5.00 volts, the load resistor would be R = 1.00 ohms.- Week 6 checklist. (updated)

- Week 7 checklist.
- All Quiz Solutions 2-9 are posted on the class webpage.

Monday 2/22: "Magnetism is just like Electricity, only different."
Most people are familiar with (1) magnets sticking to some metals, not others
such as stainless steel and (2) if you have two magnets, they may attract or
repel. North and south are analogous to plus and minus charges. Real Magnets
are dipoles (North and South ends, linked). Break a magnet in half, and you
either get two new magnets -- or nothing. So far, there is no evidence that
there are Magnetic Monopoles (magnetic charges: *q _{M}* , isolated
North or South poles). Rules similar to Electric Charges: Unlike poles attract,
like poles repel. The horizontal compass needle rotates until its North end
points North (or rather to the North Magnetic Pole, which is of course a South
pole of the Earth's magnetic core); the vertical compass rotates so that it
lines up with the B-field along the surface of the Earth at the point. At the
Equator, the vertical magnetic should be parallel to the ground, at the
magnetic poles, it should be perpendicular to the ground. Is the Earth's
magnetic field going to flip some day? And what about Mars?
Magnetic Force on a Moving Electric Charge -
The Cross Product and Right-Hand Rule (R.H.R.). The Cross Product (or Vector
Product) is the exact opposite of the Dot Product (or Scalar Product).
Multiplying two vectors together by a cross product gives us another vector
(instead of a scalar). And the cross product is not commutative, vector-A
× vector-B = - (vector-B × vector-A), so the order is paramount.
Using Right Hand Rule to assign directions to x,y,z coordinates. Constant
speed, perpendicular constant magnetic force --> Uniform Circular Motion.
Cyclotron frequency -- no dependence on the
radius (constant angular velocity).

*NOTE: J-vector = sigma × E-vector (current density = conductivity × E-field) is the vector version of Ohm's Law, where J-vector is the Current Density (although we assign a direction, technically current is a scalar and current density (I / Area) is the vector quantity). There are at least two Sample Exam 2 problems with J-vector. This will NOT be on Exam 2*.- ONE LAST NOTE ABOUT Q10: If you assigned a direction to one of the
currents, such as
*i*, and it comes out negative, all that means is that your assigned direction is the wrong way. Do NOT put any current_{3}*i*in the V = I R table as a negative number -- use magnitudes only._{}

Tuesday 2/23: Cyclotron frequency -- no
dependence on the radius (constant angular velocity).
Velocity Selector - the Magnetic Force is speed
dependent, the Electric Force is not. So we can use an E-field to create an
Electric Force to cancel the Magnetic Force on a moving charged particle, such
that at the speed v = E / B, the particle travels exactly straight with no net
force -- any other speed and the particle is deflected into a barrier. Hence a
velocity selector "selects" velocities... Velocity Selector. Mass Spectrometer - different
semi-circular paths for ions of different mass but same velocity. Can determine
chemicals, molecules, and separate isotopes (same element, different number of
neutrons in nucleus, so different mass -- cannot be separated by ordinary
chemical means). Mass Spectrometer as Calutron -- detecting or separating
isotopes, something that cannot be done by ordinary chemical means. *NOTE:
The book is effectively closed for Exam 2 topics now.*

- Q11 due on TUESDAY.
**Q10 extended and due on WEDNESDAY now**.

Wednesday 2/24: Hand back Q2, Q3, Q4, Q6. Review for Exam 2.

Thursday 2/25: Exam 2.

Friday 2/26: Spirit Day - No Classes

WMU SPRING BREAK

- Break Week checklist.
- Hope you're getting some well-deserved break time in! See you next week...

- Week 8 Checklist.

Monday 3/8: A current carrying wire consists of moving electric charges, and
so therefore would see a magnetic force from a magnetic field. Discussion of
microscopic theory of charges in a conductor. Drift velocity is the very slow
net movement of the electrons moving randomly in the wire.
Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire. Demo
-- hey it works and even in the right direction! Technically current is not a
vector, despite the fact we talk of direction of current. J = current density =
current/cross-sectional area is the vector related to current. *NOTE:
J-vector = sigma × E-vector (current density = conductivity ×
E-field) is the vector version of Ohm's Law. This was NOT on Exam 2*. So we
use the displacement vector L for the direction. For a Closed Loop, the net
Magnetic Force from a constant B-field is zero. Magnetic Torque on a Current Carrying Wire. We use
the enclosed area vector A, whose direction is defined by using the Mode 2
R.H.R. (fingers curled around the direction of the current loop, thumb is the
area vector A perpendicular to the plane of the loop). Left as is, this system
is an oscillator -- the torque goes to zero after 90° and then points the
other way. But if we can reverse the direction of the current after the torque
goes to zero, then the rotation can continue -- and we have a primitive DC
electric motor.

- This is really more of a PHYS-2050 demonstration, but hey -- it's Physics! As a friend of mine in the U.K. put it, "This is why you might need 0-100 km/hr in 2.9 seconds..."
- Then again, some geeky types have too much time on their hands (to say nothing of being far more coordinated than Dr. Phil) or come up wth the darndest Physics questions (and have too much time on their hands).

Tuesday 3/9: Return X2. Hall Effect -- a device with no moving electrical parts -- proves that charge carriers in a current carrying wire are negative, not positive. "The 200 Year Hall Effect Keyboards", will last "forever", but made obsolete in two years when Windows 95 added three keys. Gauss' Law for Magnetism. Not as useful as Gauss' Law for Electricity, because it is always zero (no magnetic monopoles).

- NOTE: Make sure you check your grading on Problems 1(a) and 2(a) on both versions of the Exam 2.
- Week 8 Checklist.
*Updated.*

Wednesday 3/10: Gauss' Law for
Magnetism. Not as useful as Gauss' Law for Electricity, because it is
always zero (no magnetic monopoles). The Biot-Savart Law. B-field from a infinitely long straight current
carrying wire by direct integration. (Serway has a similar example, but
rather than do the integral in *x*, he does this theta substitution which
Dr. Phil does not think is straight forward.) Circular loop of current carrying
wire by integration for *P* at the center of the loop. (Serway's example
allows for *P* to be on a line perpendicular to the loop.) B-field for a
circular current carrying wire at the center -- or any part of a circle. Note
that a wire coming in along the r-hat direction makes no contribution to the
B-field. Q12 Take-Home, due Friday 12 March 2010, in class or by 5pm. (Click
here for a copy.)

Thursday 3/11: Returned Formula Cards. Magnetic
Field loops from a Current Carrying Wire. RHR has "two modes".
Mode 1 uses three mutually perpendicular directions for when you have three
vectors (A × B = C is 1-2-3, x-y-z). Mode 2 uses the curling of the
fingers to represent the circulation of a field or the motion of a current,
etc., with the thumb representing the relevent vector or direction.
Magnetic Force between Two Current Carrying
Wires. Combining problems, we find that for two parallel current carrying
wires, with the currents in the same direction, the magnetic field from wire 1
creates an attractive magnetic force on wire 2. And the magnetic field from
wire 2 creates an attractive magnetic force on wire 1. (Two forces, equal and
opposite, acting on each other -- this is exactly as it should be with Newton's
3rd Law.) Anti-parallel currents (wires parallel, but currents in opposite
directions) repel. Crossed currents (wires perpendicular to each other) see no
magnetic force on each other. Operational defnition of the ampere and the
coulomb:* If the Force per length for two wires with a current I separated by
1 meter is F/L = 2 × 10 ^{-7} N/m, then I = 1 A exactly. Then in 1
second, 1 C of charge is moved by this 1 A current. *Gauss' Law for Magnetism. Not as useful as
Gauss' Law for Electricity, because it is always zero (no magnetic monopoles).
However, there is something we can use in a similar way which involves
involving a path integral along a B-field and the current(s) contained inside
-- Ampere's Law. Use in a way similar to the
way we used Gauss' Law for Electricity. Use symmetry and geometry to select
your Amperean Loop to your advantage.

- Starting 8am Friday 12 March 2010, the Physics Help Room will be moved for one week to Bradley Commons (2202 Everett Tower), next door to Dr. Phil's office.

Friday 3/12: 3-D directions and R.H.R. *You can make a list of axes
directions or unit vectors (x y z x y z) and (i j k i j k) and find the 3rd
direction of the cross product by going to the right (+) or to the left (-) in
the list. Example: i-hat × j-hat = +k-hat, since order is "i j
k", but j-hat × i-hat = -k-hat, since "j i k" goes to the
left. *Ampere's Law. Use in a way similar to
the way we used Gauss' Law for Electricity. Use symmetry and geometry to select
your Amperean Loop to your advantage. **B-field of a Torroid** (torroidal
coil; a torus is like a donut). **B-field of a Solenoid**. (*NOTE: The
integrals for the L and R sides of the Amperean Loop for Ampere's Law are zero
because: (1) the B-field is zero outside the solenoid and (2) for that part of
the path which is inside the solenoid, the B-field and the ds-vector are
perpendicular, so the dot product is zero as well.*) Coils can have
right-hand or left-hand turns -- but it is the direction that the current wraps
around the coil which determines which way the B-field points. Comments about
making a real velocity selector -- trying to stuff a capacitor for the E-field
and a solenoid for the B-field in the same space! Q13 Take-Home, due Tuesday 16
March 2010, in class or by 5pm. (Click here for a copy.) *NOTE: Part (c) may take
you a little bit of time, so don't put this off to the last minute!*

- Your Weekend Moment of Pure Physics Zen: Article about the Video.
- Week 8 Checklist.
*Updated.* - Time Change on Sunday! 2am Eastern Standard Time magically becomes 3am Eastern Daylight Time. Adjust your clocks accordingly.

- Week 9 Checklist.
- Mid-Term Grades posted via GoWMU -- or if you know your 5-digit PID number from Q1, then you can see your estimated Mid-Term Grade broken down here.

Monday 3/15: Edge effects: E-field of parallel plate capacitor vs. B-field of solenoid. More Comments about making a real velocity selector -- trying to stuff a capacitor for the E-field and a solenoid for the B-field in the same space! Comments about making real coils. Insulating varnish, heat damage. Yields affect time and money. B-field of an infinite sheet of current. Note that Ampere's Law has a flaw, which we will correct at a later date. If a current carrying wire can create a magnetic field, can a magnetic field passing through a coil create an electrical current? Demos: Cow magnets -- powerful cylindrical, rounded end magnets which get dropped into a cow's first stomach, to collect nails, bits of barbed wire, etc. from continuing on to the cow's other stomachs. Demo: Lenz Law race between cow magnets dropped through (a) plastic pipe, (b) non-magnetic aluminum pipe and (c) non-magnetic copper pipe. Something is going on, such that the magnets travel much slower through the metal pipes -- and the thicker copper pipe was much slower than the thinner aluminum pipe.

Tuesday 3/16: Demo: Magnet moving into a coil, causing current to flow
through galvanometer. Faraday's Law of
Induction. A changing magnetic flux induces a current, induces an e.m.f.,
in the circuit, substituting for the battery as the power source. Lenz's Law
"of maintaining the status quo." The coil acts as if it opposes any
change of the magnetic flux inside, by inducing a magnetic field to cancel and
increasing flux or maintain a decreasing flux. To create this induced magnetic
field, one needs an induced current, which is powered by an induced *emf*.
It is Lenz's Law that gives us the minus sign in Faraday's Law of Induction.
Recall yesterday's Lenz Law race between cow magnets dropped through (a)
plastic pipe, (b) non-magnetic aluminum pipe and (c) non-magnetic copper pipe.
Induced B-fields due to changing B-fields of falling magnets are created by
induced currents and induced emf -- as the magnet enters and leaves a circular
region of metal pipe, it is slowed by magnetic forces between its magnetic
field and the induced B-field. Turn a coil in a magnetic field and the flux
changes, thereby inducing a B-field, emf and current. Has same 180°
problem that a DC motor has. Hand-crank generators. Electric generators and
electric motors differ in which way the arrow points toward or away from
mechanical energy. Regenerative braking (also called dynamic braking) --
diesel-electric and electric trains, also hybrid cars like the Toyota Prius --
turn electric motors into generators. Energy either wasted as heat through a
resistor, or recharge battery.

Wednesday 3/17: Demo: "Jumping Rings",
making the bulb light, by Eddy Currents and Induction. Note that the metal
rings get HOT, because there is a large induced current (plus eddy currents
which we'll talk about tomorrow) and metal has a low resistance. Adding metal
increases the mass, but provides more current loops and therefore more induced
B-fields repelling the solenoid's B-field. A split metal ring (a) does not get
hot and (b) does not jump, because there is no circuit enclosing the changing
magnetic flux. Ford test electric vehicle with inductive charger -- no exposed
metal contacts, everything covered in smooth plastic. Dr. Phil has been
advocating for 54 semesters that small charging bricks for all our electronic
devices be replaced with universal charging-by-induction systems. Beginning to
see first practical systems such as Powermat. Demo: Place bundle of iron rods
in an AC coil and light bulb dims -- analogous to lights dimming when large
electric motors driving vacuum cleaners and compressors for refrigerators, air
conditioning and dehumidifiers. The "back emf" from very large coils
and large industrial motors can cause problems starting and stopping -- in
particularly you might be able to spark across the gap of an on/off switch if
the back emf is too high when you turn off an industrial motor, thus completing
the circuit again so the motor continues running. Discussion of electrical
issues in two scenes of Steven Spielberg's movie *Jurassic Park*. Q14 is a
Take-Home quiz, handed out Wednesday 17 March 2010 and due Friday 19 March
2010, in class or by 5pm. (Click here for
a copy.) *NOTE: This is something of a "catch-up" quiz, covering
several problems from Ampere's law, toroidal coil, solenoid and Faraday's Law
of Induction, so make sure you give it enough time to do.*

Thursday 3/18: Practical uses for induction: **(1) Heating: The Good** --
Heating the bottom of a metal cooking pot by induction: New type of cooking
range uses sealed induction heating elements instead of exposed hot resistors
or open gas fed flames -- usable for metal pans only. **The Bad **-- A slab
of metal used to conduct a B-field can waste energy as heat if the B-field is
changing, such as in an AC circuit. By making the slab out of thin plates
insulated from each other, the B-field still can go around the metal, but the
perpendicular loops of Eddy Currents can only have a diameter equal to the
thickness of the metal. Small eddy currents cannot generate much heat because
induced emf is too small. **(2) Safety: **(First, how regular fuses and
circuit breakers work -- and why that isn't fast enough to prevent some types
of accidents.) Ground Fault Interupt -- if the current doesn't return via the
return wire, because it has found another conductive path, then the 2 wires
(hot and return) total a net-enclosed-current for Ampere's Law, generating a
B-field in a metal ring, detected by an induction coil wrapped around the ring
and this sets off the relay which breaks the circuit. An Inductor is a coil in
a circuit. **Why an Inductor has Self-Inductance **-- running a current
through a coil creates a magnetic field and therefore changes the magnetic flux
in the coil. The inductor has to respond to that change. Inductance can be a
big deal. Even our Simplest Circuit (a resistor hooked up to a battery) forms a
loop, and the loop must respond to the circuit being turned on. The Inductor
(L). (SI units = Henry = H) Self-Inductance. Back emf, back current. Opposing
the *status quo*. Equations for Inductance. Comments about large scale
inductance in the power grid, and small scale inductance problems inside cell
phones, etc. First Set Sample Exan 3 (Click here for a copy.)

- Q14: Don't overthink the current take-home quiz. Part (a) requires you to
find the I
_{enclosed}. The 3 wires are located within a small space, just 2.00 cm, while the point P where we want to evaluate the B-field is 3.00 meters away. It's analogous to the E-field problem of a charged object Q which is about 2.00 cm, when viewed from 3.00 meters it looks like a point object. Part (f) requires you to consider what response the "cranky old guy" has regarding the change in the magnetic flux. Which way is the given B-field pointing and is it increasing or decreasing? Does the "cranky old guy" want to add to or subtract from the given B-field?

Friday 3/19: Practically speaking, you cannot have a purely inductive
circuit with just a battery and L, you really have some resistance as well.
Series RL Circuit, similar to Series RC Circuit, except that energy is stored
in the magnetic field at the maximum current. U_{L }= ½ L I
². RL Circuit for energizing the coil. Equation for current *i(t)* is
similar in appearance to the equation for *q(t)* for a charging capacitor.
Now we will de-energize the coil. *NOTE: In class I used my usual brute force
approach, instead of Serway's. The Kirchhoff Loop for the de-energining coil is
-iR -L(di/dt) = 0. Since the current is decreasing, di/dt is negative and the
induced emf from the coil becomes a voltage gain*. Solution for *i(t)*
the same form as the current *i(t)* for charging/discharging capacitor.
Solution for the magnitude of the induced emf, script-E_{L} = -L di/dt,
is the same for both energizing and de-energizing circuit, much like the
current i(t) = dq/qt gives the same solution for both charging and discharging
RC circuit. Q15 is a Take-Home quiz, handed out Friday 19 March 2010 and due
Tuesday 23 March 2010, in class or by 5pm. *NOTE: As of Friday, we have not
done the LC oscillator for the last part.*

- Week 9 Checklist. (revised 3-19-2010 Fr)
- NOTE: Monday 22 March 2010 is the last day to drop a course with a "W". If you are thinking about dropping PHYS-2070, you should probably check your revised Mid-Term grade or with Dr. Phil first to see exactly where you stand. Your grade is more than just Exam 1 and Exam 2.

- Week 10 Checklist.

Monday 3/22: RL Circuit, similar to RC Circuit, except that energy is stored
in the magnetic field at the maximum current. U_{L }= ½ L I
². Mutual Inductance between two inductors. 2nd coil responds only to
changes in magnetic flux coming from 1st coil, which is based on the changes in
the current *i _{1}* in the 1st coil. And vice versa. LC Oscillator
circuit. Same 2nd order differential equation as the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
(PHYS-2050), such as a mass on a spring. Solutions are sines and cosines.
Energy is held constant for all

- NOTE: Right after class at Noon someone asked about the frequency
*f*of an LC oscillator. (And*f = 1 /T*, where*T*is the Period.) Technically you should know this and it is in the book, but the angular frequency (rad/sec)*omega = 2 pi f*. And*omega = 1/SQRT(LC)*. You need this for Q15.

Tuesday 3/23: Can't really have a true LC oscillator, since normal wires and
coils have a resistance which dissipates energy through Joule heating. Comments
ONLY about the RLC Damped Harmonic Oscillator. Mechanical analogue is the
mass-on-a-spring with shock absorbers. A.C. Circuits. Voltage is a sine or
cosine functions, as is the Current. Problem: Average voltage is ZERO. Need to
define a new average, the Root-Mean-Square. It is the
RMS Voltage and Current that are usually
reported in A.C. circuits. Typical A.C. frequency in U.S. is 60 Hz. Need to
specify what type of A.C. For sine wave, define RMS Voltage as 0.7071 Maximum
Voltage. Similar for RMS Current. Why A.C. power? (1) Transformers allow
voltage to be raised or lowered. D.C. voltage can only be lowered by the
voltage drop of a resistor, or raised by adding power sources. The transformer
consists of two coils connected magnetically (i.e., mutual induction) by an
iron core (made of insulated plates to minimize heating from eddy currents!).
V_{2} = V_{1}N_{2}/N_{1}. (2) D.C. power lines have huge power losses due to Joule
heating, very low efficiency. Actual Efficiency = Power Used ÷ Total Power
Generated. Power lines run at higher voltages to minimize power losses due to
Joule heating in the powerlines (P = I²R).

Wednesday 3/24: Why A.C. power? (2) D.C. power lines have huge power losses
due to Joule heating, very low efficiency. Actual Efficiency = Power Used
÷ Total Power Generated. Power lines run at higher voltages to minimize
power losses due to Joule heating in the powerlines (P = I²R). For
resistive only circuits, can still use Ohm's Law, V = I R. Current and Voltage
are both sine waves. Phasor diagrams -- taking the y-component of a rotating
vector gives the sine function. Real A.C. circuits may have a Resistive nature,
a Capacitive nature and an Inductive nature. For A.C. circuits with a Resistor
only: I and V stay in phase with each other. RL Circuits: I and V out of phase
by 90°. Second set of Sample Exam 3. (Click
here for a copy.) Q16 Take-Home quiz, due
~~Friday 26 March 2010~~ Tuesday 30 March
2010, in class or by 5pm.

Thursday 3/25: For resistive only circuits, can still use Ohm's Law, V = I
R. Current and Voltage are both sine waves. Real A.C. circuits may have a
Resistive nature, a Capacitive nature and an Inductive nature. For A.C.
circuits with a Resistor only: I and V stay in phase with each other. RL
Circuits: I and V out of phase by -90°. (The current *lags* behind
the voltage.) Inductive Reactance. Phasor
diagrams -- taking the y-component of a rotating vector gives the sine
function. RC Circuits: I and V out of phase by +90°. (The current
*leads* ahead of the voltage.) Capacitive
Reactance. Many A.C. circuits have features of all three components (R, L
and C), so we have to deal with Impedance, Z.
Phasor diagrams (see textbook for diagrams). *NOTE that when we look at the
RLC AC circuit, that we rotate our previous phasor diagrams, because
"There can be only ONE current." *Minimum impedance is when purely
Resistive or when the two Reactances cancel each other -- the latter is
frequency dependent. Can run into problems if expecting f=60Hz but get f=50Hz
or f=25Hz. Phase angle, phi, for resultant V_{max} vector relative to
the I_{max} vector, is phi =
tan^{-1}((X_{L}-X_{C})/R).

- Changed due date for Q16 from
~~Friday 26 March 2010~~to Tuesday 30 March 2010. - After class on Wednesday, I was going to provide a link about the California Condor -- however Wikipedia's servers were unavailable for some time on Wednesday. Here's the link.

Friday 3/26: Minimum impedance is when purely Resistive or when the two
Reactances cancel each other -- the latter is frequency dependent. Can run into
problems if expecting f=60Hz but get f=50Hz or f=25Hz. Phase angle, phi, for
resultant V_{max} vector relative to the I_{max} vector, is phi
= tan^{-1}((X_{L}-X_{C})/R). For impedance matching ,
where X_{L}=X_{C}, we get the same equation for the angular
frequency omega = 1/SQRT(LC) as for the LC oscillator -- but what's important
this time is that omega is BOTH the LC oscillator frequency and the AC
frequency. In other words, when the impedance Z is minimized, the LC oscillator
part of the circuit isn't fighting itself. This is why power companies have to
worry about maintaining their frequency -- it affects the impedance of the
circuits. For DC circuits, P = IV. For AC, it is a little more complicated.
P_{average} = I_{rms} V_{rms} cos(phi) -- also
P_{average} = I_{rms}² R -- because of the phase angle
between V and I. (NOTE: Serway's derivation skips a couple of steps, and uses a
couple of trig identies.) For a purely resistive circuit, or one which looks
like a purely resistive circuit, phi = 0°, and so get P_{average}
= I_{rms} V_{rms} .

- NOTE: In Q16, (1) the omega is the angular frequency of the AC circuit. The
L and C values are random. (2) We have several equations for I
_{rms}. But realize that we have an R, an L and a C -- and not ONLY an R or an L or a C. This should help you decide which of about 4 equations for I_{rms}we want to use. - Article on the Northeast Corridor and some of the history of the railroad electrification mentioned in class. Articles and photos of the Pennsylvania Railroad GG-1 locomotive and the PRR/Penn Central/Amtrak Metroliner.

- Week 11 Checklist.

Monday 3/29: For impedance matching , where X_{L}=X_{C}, we
get the same equation for the angular frequency omega_{0} = 1/SQRT(LC)
as for the LC oscillator -- but what's important this time is that omega is
BOTH the LC oscillator frequency and the AC frequency. In other words, when the
impedance Z is minimized, the LC oscillator part of the circuit isn't fighting
itself. As a result, with Z minimized, I_{rms} is maximized. If R=0,
then I_{rms} would become infinite, but there is always some small
resistance. I_{rms} drops off as the AC frequency omega deviates plus
or minus from omega_{0}. (see Serway pp. 937-939) A diode is a device
which only allows current to flow in one direction. A diode in AC only takes
one side of the AC, get choppy DC (pulse power). A
diode
bridge of four diodes (bridge rectifier) gets DC
from both above and below. In either case, you can start to smooth the pulses
by putting a capacitor in parallel with the load resister R, so when the
current i(t) = 0, the capacitor discharges to prop up the DC current. Serway
also mentions high- and low-pass filters. The problem with Ampere's Law -- it
doesn't work properly in the gap between the plates of a capacitor while it is
charging. So James Clerk Maxwell fixed it with a "displacement
current" term, involving the time derivitive of the Electric flux in the
gap. Ampere-Maxwell Law. Maxwell's
Equations in integral form. Note that Maxwell didn't invent the four
equations, only half of one, but he figured out what todo with them. E & M
Waves. In vacuum (free space): a traveling set of perpendicular E-fields and
B-fields, as sine waves constantly changing in space and time, moving with wave
speed c (the speed of light in vacuum). *With the Ampere-Maxwell Law, we
effectively have closed the book on Exam 3 material. Some of the Sample Exam 3s
may contain questions on Maxwell's Laws, but we'll save those for the Final
Exam this semester.*

- There is a Third Sample Exam 3 on the class web page for downloading (will not be handed out in class).
- For Your Amusment -- xkcd on Benjamin Franklin...

Tuesday 3/30: The Lorenz Force Law combines the vector forms of
F_{E} = qE and F_{B} = q v × B, to find the total force on
a charge *q* in an E-field and a B-field. Maxwell's Equations and Hertz's
radio wave LC oscillator --
the spark gap
radio. The
Marconi
wireless telegraph of the RMS Titanic, and the modern cellphone. AM
(amplitude modulation) radio versus FM (frequency modulation) and digital
radio. For traveling waves in general, a wave is function of both space and
time, x and t. The repeat time is T, the Period. Light as a wave. The frequency
is f = 1/T. The repeat length is lamda, the wavelength. For all traveling
waves, v = frequency × wavelength. For light v = c = 2.998 ×
10^{8} m/s (in vacuum).

Wednesday 3/31: Hand back Q12, Q13, Q14. Maxwell's solution gives an electromagnetic wave. The Great 19th Century Debate: Is Light a Particle or a Wave? (Wave-Particle Duality did not seem obvious at the time, so scientists stubbornly stuck to one or the other theory without realizing there was a compromise that embraced ALL the experimental evidence.) Review for Exam 3.

April 4/1: *April Fool's Day (Not a WMU
holiday).* Exam 3.

April 4/2: *Good Friday (Not a WMU
holiday)*. Working with 3rd and 4th of Maxwell's Equations to
generate partial differential equations of E(x,t) and B(x,t). (see pp. 958-959
in Serway) Looking at the solution to Traveling E-M
Wave, with v in x-direction, E in y-direction and B in z-direction. Angular
frequency omega, wave number k. c = E_{max} / B_{max}.
Derivation of *c = E / B*. Similar to the relationship between the E-field
and the B-field in the velocity selector, where *v = E / B*. Poynting
Vector, S. Rate of energy flow over an area -- SI units (W/m²).
Traveling E-M Wave, Poynting Vector.

- Week 11 Checklist. (revised 4-2-2010 Fri)
- Topic 1 Book Reports will be coming due in two weeks. Keep up to date on your work.
- And yes, the Final Exam
*is*cummulative.

- Week 12 Checklist.

Monday 4/5: Poynting Vector, S. Traveling E-M Wave, Poynting Vector and Intensity. Energy stored equally in E- and B-fields of the E-M wave. Momentum and Pressure of light waves absorbed or reflected on contact. (Complete absorption like totally inelastic collision; complete reflection like totally elastic collision). Discussion of solar energy -- Serway calculates 160,000 W available on the roof of a house, but we only need about 10,000 W. Even accounting for angles, clouds and night, we don't need 100% capture to significantly reduce power from external sources. Light pressure and momentum transfer, despite the fact that light as mass = zero. NASA used solar panels as solar sails on Mariner 10 near the planet Mercury. Q17 is a Take-Home, handed out Monday 5 April 2010 and due later in the week, in class or by 5pm.

- Note: Dr. Phil has been using P for Power and P for Pressure. Serway uses script-P for Power. If you are confused in this section, trying spelling out Power and Pressure, rather than abbreviating it to "P".

Tuesday 4/6: Light as a particle. The energy of a single photon
("particle" of light) is *E = h f*, where *h = 6.626 ×
10 ^{ -34} J·s *is Planck's constant, a fundamental constant
involved in Modern Physics. (If there was only Classical Physics, then

Wednesday 4/7: The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Visible light (ROYGBIV=red orange yellow green blue indigo violet). Visible light is 400nm to 750nm (4000 angstroms to 7500 angstroms). Cannot "see" atoms with visable light, because the atom is about 1 angstrom across (1.00E-10 meters). The visible light wave is too large to see something that small. Frequencies LOWER and wavelengths LONGER than visible light (IR infrared, Microwave, Radio waves, ELF extremely low frequency). Microwave ovens have metal screens in their windows -- the centimeter-range sized EM waves cannot see the "small" holes in the screen, so they bounce off the window as if it were just like the metal in the other five walls. This is similar to why we cannot "see" atoms with visable light, because the atom is about 1 angstrom across (1.00E-10 meters). The visible light wave is too large to see something that small. Radio includes what we consider consumer radio (AM and FM), television (analog and digital), WiFi, Bluetooth, cellular/wireless services, etc. Frequencies HIGHER and wavelengths SHORTER than visible light (UV ultraviolet, X-rays, Gamma rays). UVA and UVB, sunglasses. Discussion of why Superman's X-ray vision cannot work: Normal human vision -- light either reflected off of objects or directly from light source. Few X-rays get reflected, so what is the source of the X-rays for Superman to see? (If he's projecting the X-rays, he's killing anyone he looks at.) Gamma rays and food irradiation. Q18 Take-Home, due Friday 9 April 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- Interesting: In looking up the Asahi Pentax Quartz Takumar 85mm lens online, I found a reference to the slightly later and more advanced Ultra Achromatic Takumar 85mm f4.5 lens which had quartz and fluorite lenses (NO glass) and could be used from 200 nm (UV) to 1000 nm (IR).

Thursday 4/8: X3 returned. (Exam 3 curve here) Note that we have run out of textbook, so we will finish the course touching on a number of interesting topics in optics, relativity and modern physics, which may be useful either because this is your last Physics course or because you might get interested enough to continue in the 3rd semester course, PHYS-3090. Optics: Geometric Optics (ray tracing, light as stream of particles), Physical Optics (wave nature of light).

- NOTE (I talked about this at Noon and forgot at 2pm): Regarding Q17, turned
in yesterday. Several people discovered that in evaluating
*cos(kx - omega t)*, that because the second term,*omega t*, is so much bigger than*kx*, that you can different answers depending on whether you put the intermediate answer in 3+1 sig. figs. or use the whole calculator number. We'll grade gently because of this. However, one way to get around this is the following strategy: If you write down an intermediate number, such as*omega*or*k*, in your next equation, then you should write it as say 3+1 sig. figs. and then key it in your calculator exactly as you have it written down. Then anyone checking your work should get the same answer, because they can follow what you wrote.

Friday 4/9: Light rays from a point source radiate outward, much like E-field lines from a point charge. From a large distance away, the light rays look parallel. When a light ray reaches a new material, it can undergo (1) reflection, (2) absorption, (3) transmission. The Law of Reflection. Measure all angles from the normal line perpendicular to the surface. Rough surfaces -- scattering. The Optical Lever -- move a mirror by 10° and the reflected ray moves by 20°. (Dr. Phil's theory on the origin of "seven years of bad luck for breaking a mirror".) The Law of Refraction - Snell's Law. Light bent at the interface between two media, because the speed of light changes in the media. (Analogy: If you are driving along the road and your right tires go off onto the soft shoulder, they can't go as fast and the car turns towards the shoulder until all four wheels are driving off the road.) First set of Sample Final Exams handed out. (Click here and here for a copy.)

- Week 12 Checklist. (updated 4-9-2010 Fri)
- NOTE: After yesterday's discussion about fabricating computer chips using optical masking, and why they had to develop UV optics, Hewlett-Packard announced progress on a new process called the memristor. "The most advanced transistor technology today is based on minimum feature sizes of 30 to 40 nanometers — by contrast a biological virus is typically about 100 nanometers — and Dr. Williams said that H.P. now has working 3-nanometer memristors that can switch on and off in about a nanosecond, or a billionth of a second." (See also Engadget's spin on the memristor.)

- Week 13 Checklist.
- FYI: Handout: SI Prefixes and Dr. Phil's Simplified Significant Figures.

Monday 4/12: Q16 returned. The Law of Reflection. People tend to not like photographs of themselves, because they are used to seeing their mirror image -- their normal image, which the rest of us sees, looks "wrong". The Law of Refraction - Snell's Law. As light travels through an interface, if there is a change in the index of refraction, the light will be bent at the interface. If going from an high index of refraction media to a lower index media ONLY, have a chance for Total Internal Reflection (T.I.R.). This is a "perfect" reflection, better than a mirror. Used in high-end optical systems instead of mirrors. Also useful in fiber optics cables. Dispersion -- in vacuum all speeds of light are the same, but in a medium, there are slighltly different n's for each wavelength. As one goes from a high index of refraction to a low index, increasing the angle of incidence, white light will start breaking into the rainbox spectrum of colors. This is due to dispersion, a change in the speed of light for each wavelength. Q19 Take-Home, due Wednesday 14 April 2010, in class or by 5pm.

Tuesday 4/13: Corner (2 perpendicular mirrors) and Corner Cube (3
perpendicular mirrors) reflectors.
Corner
cube reflectors were placed on the Moon and used to measure the distance to
within a cm (working now to get it down the mm). Light going through a
parallel-plano sheet of glass. Two interfaces: air-to-glass and
glass-back-to-air. Coming down the normal, 0°, no deviation. At any other
angle from the normal in air, the ray is refracted towards the normal in glass
and then back out at the original angle when back in air. However, the light
ray is offset from the line the ray would've followed had the glass not been
there. This offset *d* is based on the thickness *t* of the glass and
the angles of the refracted ray, so the offset increases as the angle in air
increases. Discussion of trying to see forward (large angle from normal)
through the windows of a bus, train or plane. Very hard and very expensive to
make true parallel-plano surfaces. **Thin Lenses**. Simplest lens surfaces
are spherical (convex = bows out, concave = bows in) and flat (plano). So some
lenses might appear to be biconvex, plano-convex, biconcave, convex-concave. A
biconvex lens is also called a positive or converging lens. Parallel light rays
coming into such a lens will all pass through (converge on) the focal point, a
distance *f* from the center of the lens. By itself, could use as a
magnifying lens. Concentrating sunlight: burning paper or popping ants? A
biconcave lens is also called a negative or diverging lens. Parallel light rays
will diverge after passing through the less, coming together at the near focal
point, not the far focal point -- you can only see the bright spot by looking
through the lens. Ray tracing gets same results as doing Snell's Law on
mulitple curved lens surfaces. Handy not to have to do all that refraction
calculations!

Wednesday 4/14: Ray tracing gets same results as doing Snell's Law on
mulitple curved lens surfaces. Handy not to have to do all that refraction
calculations! Real image formed by
passing three rays through a positive thin lens. Physical Optics. Based on wave
properties of light. Constructive and Destructive
Interference. Anti-Reflection coating
for lenses. Step 1 - A thin coating of thickness *t* applied to a glass
surface, means that light rays coming in from the air make two reflections (air
to coating, and coating to glass). If the roundtrip distance of the 2nd
reflection is out of phase with the 1st reflection (off by ½ wavelength)
then the two reflections can cancel each other. Thickness = half the round-trip
distance, yields a "quarter-wave coating". Step 2 - But the roundtrip
distance is done in the coating, so need to find the wavelength in the coating,
not the air or glass. Step 3 - When a light ray goes from a low index of
refraction to a higher index of refraction, the reflection gains a ½
wavelength phase shift. If both reflections are the same kind (low to high, or
high to low), then the two reflections are still in phase with each other and
we still get the same quarterwave anti-reflection solution. If both reflections
are different (one is low to high and one is high to low), then the two
reflections begin with a ½ wavelength phase shift, and we get halfwave
anti-reflection coatings. Use the wrong quarterwave or halfwave coating yields
a solution with maximum reflections. Back to Anti-Reflection and Max-Reflection
coatings with 0, 1 or 2 half-wavelength shifts upon reflections. Q20 Take-Home,
due Friday 16 April 2010, in class or by 5pm.

- Week 13 Checklist. (Updated 4-14-2010 Wed)
- Thursday 15 April 2010 is the first day to turn in Final Topic 1 Papers. We'll still accept them through Monday 19 April 2010 by 5pm.
- If you had a Draft Paper evaluation, you must turn in your marked up Draft with your Final Paper, and you get to add day(s) to the due dates if you need them.
- As of 3:30pm on Wednesday, I still have a couple of Draft Papers that have not yet been picked up.

Thursday 4/15: Tax Day (Not a WMU holiday). The
focal length *f* of a lens depends on the index of refraction of the
material. But we said that the index of refraction is slightly different for
different wavelengths, i.e. the speed of light in the material varies slightly.
This is called *dispersion*. That means there is a slightly different
*f* for each wavelength, which means that the different colors of visible
light will focus to slightly different places. For long lenses with large
pieces of glass in front, this can become a problem taking color pictures. We
get around this by using more exotic materials such as fluorite crystals
(calcium fluorite) or ED (extra low dispersion) glass which has less dispersion
than more ordinary, cheaper optical grade glass. **Modern Physics** -- goes
to size/time/length scales far outside our normal experience. Classical
Relativity (two observers, two frames of reference), Special Relativity (speed
constant), General Relativity (accelerations or gravity). Einstein's
postulates: (1) All observers see the same Physics laws. (2) All observers
measure the speed of light in vacuum as c.
Beta, gamma, Length Contraction and
Time Dilation. Alpha Centauri is 4.20 LY from Earth (proper length). Those
on a starship see a different distance and experience a different time than the
observer left on the Earth. But both think the other observer is moving at v
< c. No preferred observer in Special Relativity. Two observers cannot agree
on what they see, distance or time. They can only agree that the speed of light
in vacuum is c. One sees the proper length: a length measurement where both
ends are measured at the same time. One sees the improper length: a length
measurement made at two different times. Neither observer is preferred -- that
is one is not "more right" than the other. They are both right. These
differences in time and length measurements have been confirmed by experiment.
Experimental confirmation of Special Relativity: put atomic clocks on aircraft,
spacecraft. Difference in time with identical clocks left on the ground. Second
set of Sample Final Exams handed out. (Click here and here for a copy.) FIRST DAY to turn in Topic 1
Book Reports.

Friday 4/16: Einstein's postulates: (1) All observers see the same Physics
laws. (2) All observers measure the speed of light in vacuum as c.
Beta, gamma, Length Contraction and
Time Dilation. Alpha Centauri is 4.20 LY from Earth (proper length). Those
on a starship see a different distance and experience a different time than the
observer left on the Earth. But both think the other observer is moving at v
< c. No preferred observer in Special Relativity. Two observers cannot agree
on what they see, distance or time. One sees the proper length: a length
measurement where both ends are measured at the same time. One sees the proper
time: a time measurement where beginning and end are measured at the same
place. Two observers cannot agree on the *order* of events, either. The
concept of "simultaneity" is gone. Another confirmation of Special
Relativity: Muons (a form of heavy electron) are created in the upper
atmosphere -- they're unstable and will decay. Muons measured at mountaintop --
by sea level, nearly all should have already decayed. But you detect almost as
many at sea level as on the mountaintop, because the muon lifetime is measured
in the muon's rest frame *not* while we are watching it moving. The
Correspondence Principle -- at some point our Classical Physics results need to
match the Modern Physics results. So when do we need Special Relativity? For
eyeball measurements, we have trouble distiguishing the size of things that are
only off by 10%. That would correspond to a gamma = 1.10, and a beta = 0.417 c.
Q21 Take-Home, due Tuesday 20 April 2010, in class or by 5pm. SECOND DAY to
turn in Topic 1 Book Reports.

- Week 13 Checklist. (Updated 4-16-2010 Fri)
- NOTE: In Q21, all calculations are based on when the arrow is moving (from the archer's point of view). As usual, we neglect the time it takes to accelerate and decelerate.

- Week 14 Checklist.

Monday 4/19: Classic Farmer vs. Pole Vaulter problem. Each believes that
they win the bet, both are entitled to their opinion. Cannot realistically do
it though -- cannot build a mechanism that would work as the farmer wants it to
work. Relativistic momentum, *p _{rel} = gamma mv*, and
relativistic Kinetic Energy,

Tuesday 4/20: The neutrino -- Fermi's "little neutral one" -- was
necessary to carry a missing piece of momentum in some nuclear and particle
reactions. It seems to travel at v = c, but seems also to be a particle and not
a photon. How can this be? Turns out it has a very small, but non-zero mass,
and therefore travels *almost*, but not quite at v = c. Faster than the
speed of light? The tachyon -- a hypothetical particle, whose time properties
are very confusing. What we *can* do is have c > v > cm, so that we
can have a particle traveling faster than the local speed of light in a
material. Get Cerenkov Radiation -- typically a blue glow which is the optical
equivalent of a sonic boom in air. The
deBroglie wavelength --
Wave/Particle Duality for Matter. Planck's constant -- a very small number, but
it is NOT zero ( h = 0 in Classical Physics). So the deBroglie wavelength only
matters for very small objects, not Buicks. A slowly moving electron is more
wavelike, while an electron moving at 99.99% of c is very particle-like. The
Heissenberg Uncertainty
Principle, means that there are limits to how well we can know (measure)
pairs of certain quantities at the same time. delta-p and delta-x, also delta-E
and delta-t -- where delta means the uncertainty or error in measuring the
quantity. Q22 Take-Home, due __Thursday 22 April
2010__, in class or by 5pm.

- For Your Amusement: Werner Heisenberg was pulled over by a traffic cop. The cop asks, "Do you know how fast you were going?" Heisenberg responds, "No, but I know exactly where I am!" The cop says, "I clocked you going exactly 92.67 miles per hour!" and Heisenberg says, "Oh, *thanks*, now I'm lost!"

Wednesday 4/21: Some comments about the Periodic Table of Elements. Niels
Bohr postulated that the electron could only exist in certain orbits, so he
proposed that the angular momentum (*mvr*) can only have integer values of
h-bar. This introduces the principle quantum number *n*. This also means
that the circumference of the orbital is some integer of the electron's
deBroglie wavelength -- and we have a circular standing wave only for those
orbits which are allowed. By the time we get the radius equation, there are
only two variables (and both are integers!): the quantum state number *n*
and the proton/element number *Z*. All the other items are fundamental
constants. By the time we get the radius equation, there are only two variables
(and both are integers!): the quantum state number *n* and the
proton/element number *Z*. All the other items are fundamental constants,
which when multiplied together give us "a_{0}", the radius of
the n=1 innermost state of the hydrogen atom, equal to 0.528
×10^{-10} meters. Twice that is the diameter, so the size of the
hydrogen atom is about an angstrom, as advertised. Note that the radius goes as
n², so the orbitals get big quite fast. Since this is UCM, knowing the
radius means we know the speed *v*. And that allows us to calculate the
classical Kinetic Energy, *KE = ½mv²*. (It turns out that the
speeds remain below 0.42 c for all *n* and *Z*'s for about half the
periodic table, so we don't have to deal with Relativity.) The total energy of
each state, En = KE + PE, and in this problem I shall state that the PE = -2KE.
So En = -KE and it ends up being Z²/n² times more constants. The
ground-state or n=1 energy for hydrogen is -2.18 ×10^{-18} J or
-13.6 eV. Now for an electron to move from one orbit to another, it must gain
or lose energy. Going from a higher *n* to a lower *n*, the
difference in the energy is release as a photon with E = hf. To go from a lower
*n* to a higher *n*, the electron has to absorb a photon of E=hf. And
now we have an explanation of the spectral lines which we had once described as
"fingerprints for elements". Burn hydrogen and the light emitted,
when run through a prism will split not into a rainbow, but individual lines of
individual colors -- these are emission lines. Take white sunlight, shine it
through a prism and look at the rainbow of colors under a microscope and you
will see that individual lines of color are missing -- these are absoption
lines caused by the hydrogen gas in the Sun's atmosphere removing those colors
and moving their electrons to higher orbits or ionizing completely. Atomic
spectra were known for decades before the Bohr atom, so they were trying to
solve the puzzle backwards -- what they didn't know was that any transition
involving the n=1 innermost orbit in hydrogen gave photons in the UV and so the
scientists couldn't see them at the time. If we try to solve the helium atom
(Z=2) in a similar way, we find that with one nucleus and two electrons, we
have a three-body problem and we can't solve that in closed form. However, we
can use our Bohr equations for hydrogenic ions (hydrogen-like) which have only
one electron, so we can solve for He^{+}, Li^{+2},
Be^{+3}, B^{+4}, C^{+5}, ... , U^{+91}, etc.
*NOTE: This material is covered more fully in an Atomic & Nuclear Physics
handout, along with the Periodic Table with equations sheet which will be
handed out on Wednesday. *(Click here for the Atomic & Nuclear Physics
handout (not given in class) and here for the Periodic Table handout
-- with today's derivation on the back.)

- Office Hours for Finals Week are posted.
- NEW: Week 15 Finals REVIEW Checklist.
- For Your Amusement: Here's your circuits review.

Thursday 4/22: Takeaway from Bohr Atom: Equations for orbital radius,
*r _{n}*, and energy,

- NEW: Week 15 Finals Week Checklist.
- NOTE: The posted solution to Q18 parts a & b have been fixed. (I'd transposed two digits of the wavelength.)

Friday 4/23: Last Day of Class.

- Over the weekend I will post estimated Grades.
- Please note that the Topic 1 papers are the
*last*thing that gets graded, so they will not be available to pick up at the Final Exam.