Research  
 

Alcoholism

Alcoholism is a problem that a lot people face.  It’s in your homes, at our college parties when we go back to school and even people personal life of being labeled alcoholics and being disowned from their own families. It’s a chronic, often progressive disease. A person will crave alcohol and an inability to stop drinking. About 18 million people in the United States abuse alcohol and estimated 70 million Americans dealt with alcoholism in their family. Alcoholism has impact certain ethnic groups have been such as the minority.  There are corner stores on every corner I these neighbors making this very easy to get. If we find what impact the people the most then we can try to prevent it. How does alcoholism impact certain ethnic groups on stigmas, educations and the economy? If we find the answers to this questions we can be prevent this to happen to others.

 Stigmas is a mark of disgraced because of a certain circumstance, quality, or person. Alcoholism is disease that people get disowned from their families because they are embarrassed of the things they do. “Stigma scores were lowest for Whites and Native Americans, higher for Blacks and highest for Asians and Hispanics, both in the total population and among lifetime alcoholics” (Dawson, DA, Goldstein, R B, Grant, B E, Smith, S M, 2010). These stigmas have negative effects on the people, preventing them to get treatment. Negative stigmas impact the minority except Native Americans because it’s a psychological function. In this study there was no statistical significance in association.  In the study they concluded that “the stigmas are used to reduce the quality of life among those who are dependent on alcohol but there is no clear evidence that it affects racial-ethnic differences in quality of life” (Dawson, DA, Goldstein, R B, Grant, B E, Smith, S M, 2010). Alcoholism is not doesn’t affect ethnicity based on stigmas they have.

The United States has been in a recession for several years and has been impact certain ethnicity and the problem of alcoholism. “Loss and drunkenness appeared to be stronger for White and Black men that they were for White and Black women and Latinos of both genders.” (Zemore, S., Mulia, N., Jones-Webb, R., Liu, H., & Schmidt, L., 2013). This report is about how the more alcohol you take the more economy loss United States takes because of the people losing income and not able to pay bills. This hurts our economy because this means more assistances living and increase on taxes on tax payers. “White and Black men experiencing severe loss reported significantly higher rates of monthly drunkenness than counterparts reporting no loss, whereas economic loss was unrelated to drunkenness in other groups” (Zemore, S., Mulia, N., Jones-Webb, R., Liu, H., & Schmidt, L., 2013). This shows that   Caucasian and African American men are most likely to get loss more because the higher rate of drinking. The African American and Caucasian men are more like to be impacted in the economy and having an alcoholism problem and Latinos have low levels of consequences and dependence regard economy loss.

  Alcoholism is a problem in college because of excessive drinking by college students. “In  2001, 600,000 college students were unintentionally injured from alcohol-related causes, 1,700 college students dies from alcohol-related injuries and 696,000 were assaulted or hit by another drinking college student” (Harford, T., Hsiao-Ye, Y., & Hilton, M. (2006). The impact on alcoholism and education on Non-college and college people are both risky of long term consequences. “The long term risk for alcohol dependence and, consequently, the need for appropriately tailored prevention efforts, is greater among high school dropouts and college nonattenders than among college students, although much of the current literature has focused on the latter”  (Harford, T., Hsiao-Ye, Y., & Hilton, M. (2006). Alcoholism is a problem even at the education level because students will get dependent on alcohol losing focus on their studies and fall behind causing to dropout.

The reason for different ethnicity groups having different drinking patterns because of their area that the socioeconomic status. “For each of the ethnic groups a examines one area which might account for with-in group differences. The chapter on African America examines urban migration, the chapter on Hispanics examines acculturation, and the chapter on Asian American examines genetic or physiological influences.” Weisner, C. (1999). Based on you economic and social status it determines whether you are a heavy drinker or just a social drinker. Now do I believe that this is true? No, because you can be from an “urban city” and be a social drinker and be from the “city” and be a heavy drinker. Patterns of drinking in the ethnicity group are different because how alcohol was used in the different homes. If you have an alcoholic in your family you’re more likely to become one. But at some homes children may have a glass of wine at the table with dinner teaching them that it’s not something you drink excessively. So if you have a small drinking pattern at your home you’re more likely to drink less and larger drinking pattern at your home you’re more likely to drink more than the average.

Is race a factor when it comes to the people drink? “Race may also moderate the relation of expectancies to drinking patterns. For example, blacks may be more likely than whites to expect that alcohol has "warming" or pain-alleviating effects” (Kline, R. B., 1990). Now this study is to evaluate gender and race moderated expected drinking behavior. “Expectations that alcohol enhances sociability and mood were the best predictors of negative consequences of drinking and were "high-risk" beliefs among the alcoholics of this study.” (Kline, R. B., 1990). When people call alcohol “liquid courage” what they mean is that there able to speak their mind without being afraid to say what they really meant to say. This is a factor that comes out of alcoholics when they are drinking. Behaviors like this are dangerous because most of the time you’re doing something without thinking of the consequences.

Genetics are the variations of inherited characteristics.  Consultation with COGA geneticists revealed no consensus on the minimum difference in substance-dependence prevalence necessary to substantially affect genetic discovery” (Kramer, J., Chan, G., Kuperman, S., Bucholz, K., Edenberg, H., Schuckit, M., Polegreen, L., Kapp, E., Hesselbrock,V., Nurnberger, J., and Bierut, L., 2009). Genetics have a small part in if you become an alcoholic. Like if you have a parent that is an alcoholic you are more likely to become one because of genetics but that it is not always the factor. In the study of The Behavioral genetics of Alcoholism this conclusion four “Alcoholic rearing may not be one of the critical environmental factors influencing the development of alcoholism characterizing the nature of the genetic influence on alcoholism.” (McGue,Matt, 1993). Even though people try and blame their environment on why they became an alcoholic there is significance in that. Genetics is a major factor when it comes to alcoholism.

 Alcoholism has been a problem in the United States with people. It has been studies showing weather this is a factor or that is a factor. Stigmas have no significance, being born somewhere does not matter or whether you are educated. People drink because they like to or because of psychological issues. 

 

              About 18 million people in the United States abuse alcohol and estimated 70 million Americans dealt with alcoholism in their family. Alcoholism is a disease when a person will crave alcohol and an inability to stop drinking. Alcoholism has been blamed on many factors like the environment you were raised in, weather you have a high education, the economy but the real reason for Alcoholism is genetics. Yes, that’s right because yours parents, or grandparents you are most likely to become an alcoholic. Studies have shown this plenty of times in their studies but we people always try to find a new factor. Well I’m telling you to give it up and accepted that you maybe an alcoholic. I’m not saying there are not ways to prevent this to happening to you because they are. We as people tend to blame things on nothing that has to with the problem but I’m here to say that we are not perfect and we make mistakes. Alcoholism is nothing to be ashamed of and don’t believe that you’re just going to be a alcohol because of genetics but that is the main reason why alcoholism is a problem today.

Refrences

Dawson, DA, Goldstein, R B, Grant, B E, Smith, S M, “Examining Perceived Alcoholism Stigma Effect on Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Treatment and Quality of Life Among Alcoholics” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71, no. 2 (2010): 231-236. http://libproxy.library.wmich.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/809821482?accountid=15099

Harford, T., Hsiao-Ye, Y., & Hilton, M. (2006). Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in College and Noncollege sSamples: A Ten-Year Prospective Follow-Up in a National Survey. 67(6), 803-809.

Kline, R. B. (1990). The Relation of Alcohol Expectancies to Drinking Patterns Among Alcoholics: Generalization across Gender and Race. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(2), 175-175.http://libproxy.library.wmich.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/61025625?accountid=15099

Kramer, J., Chan, G., Kuperman, S., Bucholz, K., Edenberg, H., Schuckit, M., Polegreen, L., Kapp, E., Hesselbrock,V., Nurnberger, J., and Bierut, L. (2009). A Comparison of Diagnoses Obtained from In-Person and Telephone Interviews, Using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA). 70(4), 623-627. http://libproxy.library.wmich.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/200448439?accountid=15099

McGue, M. (1993). From proteins to cognitions: The behavioral genetics of alcoholism. (pp. 245-268). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://libproxy.library.wmich.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/618398022?accountid=15099

Weisner , C. (1999). Alcoholism in the United States:

 Racial and Ethnic Considerations. 94(5), 761-762. http://libproxy.library.wmich.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/199553736?accountid=15099

Zemore, S., Mulia, N., Jones-Webb, R., Liu, H., & Schmidt, L. (2013). The 2008-2009 Recession and Alcohol Outcomes: Differential Exposure and Vulnerability for Black and Latino Populations. 74(1), 9-20.