PEPR 3320-APA Citations
Some examples of APA Citations. (Please realize that indentations are not possible because of html.). If you have questions, please use the e-mail link to e-mail me. I have put the citations in bold. These are examples of in-text APA Citations for ideas and for quotes.
Tourism was advocated as a rural community development tool not only in self development research, but in community development research by Burr (1994b), Bourke and Luloff (1995), and Allen, Hafer, Long, and Perdue (1993). Meanwhile, Galston and Baehler (1995) suggested that many rural communities "have turned to tourism as an alternative to the old smoke stack chasing and buffalo hunting strategies that dominated economic development in the 1960's and 1970's" (p. 177). Finally, Green, Flora, Flora, and Schmidt (1990) suggested that tourism development leads to "development of the community" as opposed to "development in the community". Thus, according to Shaffer and Summers (1989) "the creation and maintenance of activities [tourism], organizations, and institutions that strengthen interactional ties among residents are deemed essential" (p. 173). In other words, tourism development was an important component of the community development process. Therefore, studying the development of tourism assisted one to understand the process of community development.
There is now a need to marry the research in tourism with research in rural community development. To some extent that has been done as researchers in recreation and leisure as well as community development have proposed tourism as a developmental tool. Tourism has been proposed as one of the possible solutions to the ills of rural communities in the United States. Research in community development, especially self development research (Flora, Green, Gale, Schmidt, and Flora, 1992; Green, Flora, Flora, and Schmidt, 1990) has shown that tourism is a developmental tool for communities. Meanwhile, tourism researchers, (Burr, 1994a, 1994b; Lankford, 1994; Luloff, et al. 1994) have also investigated tourism as a developmental tool in rural communities. In other words, the topic of tourism as a developmental tool has been approached by both sides, but neither side has approached the topic of the process of tourism. All of the research cited in this literature review assumes tourism as a pre-existing condition in rural communities. How that tourism entered the community, how it was developed, and who developed it was the focus of this investigation.
There is really no generally accepted definition of tourism. For example, Blank (1989) suggested that tourism is a complex system consisting of three major parts, the tourist, the destination, and the linkages between the tourist and the destination. Theobald (1994) suggested that tourism was defined in so many different ways that it is extremely difficult to understand any definition. He suggested that tourism "has been variously defined [or refined] by governments and academics related to such fields as economics, sociology, cultural anthropology and geography" (p. 7). According to Theobald (1994) there are two different types of definitions of tourism; conceptual definitions of tourism which serve to provide a theoretical framework for understanding tourism; and technical definitions of tourism which serve to provide tourism information for statistical purposes. Theobald (1994) found that it was extremely difficult to precisely define tourism but suggested that it was necessary to define tourism because the definition affected how research data concerning tourism were interpreted.
examples of APA Citations for different references. Remember, indentation is
not possible on the web and there are some changes in the newer edition of APA.
Chapter of an edited book.
A.D. (1990). Leadership and implementation in rural economic development. In
Luloff, A.E. & Swanson, L.E. (Eds.) (1990). American Rural Communities
(pp. 203-214). Boulder: Westview Press.
W.F. (Ed.). (1994). Global tourism: The next decade. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
A Journal: Article by serveral
authors in a journal:
Goudy, W.J. (1976). Perceptions of a good community. Journal of the Community Development Society, 7, 70-87.
Bergstrom, J.C., Cordell, H.K., Ashley, G.A., & Watson, A.E. (1990). Economic impacts of recreational spending on rural areas: A case study. Economic Development Quarterly, 4, 29-39.
Theobald, W.F. (Ed.). (1994). Global tourism: The next decade. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Article by serveral
authors in a journal:
Thursday, January 7, 2010 12:55 PM
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