Roots of Vertical Integration in the Film Industry


1.  Chaplin and vertical integration


2.  Pathe in France


3.  Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company (the "Trust")


4.  Other studios as a reaction to the Trust:

          a.  Paramount (Zukor)

          b.  MGM (Loew)

          c.  Warner Bros.

          d.  Fox

5.  UFA and German Expressionist cinema

          a.  formation of UFA; Germany after WWI

          b.  Expressionism; German Expressionism

          c.  Kracauer's study of Ger. Expr. film

          d.  impact of 20s German film on Hollywood