CHEMICAL ECOLOGY: BIOS 5970

 

Dr Stephen B. Malcolm

Department of Biological Sciences,

Western Michigan University.

 

3151 Wood Hall, tel: 387-5604, e-mail: "steve.malcolm@wmich.edu"

Office hours: Monday-Wednesday 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon,

or by appointment

 

 

Spring semester 2006

Monday-Wednesday, 2:00-3:50 p.m.

Room 1106 Wood Hall

 

 

EXPECTED OUTCOMES

 

Goal:                  To develop an appreciation for interdisciplinary understanding of chemically mediated interactions among organisms at different scales of organization from molecules to ecosystems, through lectures, reading, multi-media, discussion and hands-on research.

 

Objectives:     To develop skills in the following:

 

• Analytical thinking.

• Discipline-specific information acquisition and analysis.

• Communication and discussion.

• Interaction among ideas, deductive hypotheses and methods.

• Value of interdisciplinary synergism (how methods from one discipline can allow another discipline to ask and develop new questions).

• Hierarchical and scaling interactions among different levels of organization from molecules to ecosystems.

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

 

What is Chemical Ecology?  It is a hybrid.  It is a synergism that benefits from the product of ecologists and chemists talking to each other and borrowing ideas and methods to produce something that is greater than the sum of its components.

 

This sounds idealistic, but it really seems to work.  Each year at the annual meeting of the International Society for Chemical Ecology (ISCE), chemists and ecologists from around the world meet and enjoy considerable rapport and productivity, even if they do not always understand the esoterics of each other's discipline.  Nevertheless, it is common to hear chemists chide ecologists for thinking that chemistry is simple "cookery" and ecologists mutter about chemists thinking that ecology is just "common sense" or “natural history.”  But the friendly bickering is useful and keeps both sides on their toes as they justify their disciplines and enhance the synergism.

 

Perhaps the greatest value from the interaction between chemists and ecologists is the depth of understanding that we gain about chemically mediated interactions in nature.  Chemists have developed wonderfully sophisticated methods for routine screening of thousands of naturally occurring chemicals in minute quantities.  Such accurate and sensitive screening means that ecologists can search for the patterns of variation that they find so fascinating and try to explain the reasons for observable phenomena.  So the chemist is happy with new and intriguing biologically active chemicals and the ecologist is happy with reams of data on how the same chemicals vary quantitatively and qualitatively in both space and time.  Most recently, techniques in molecular genetics now allow us to measure the timing and extent of gene expression so that we can understand more precisely the links between chemistry and phenotypic expression of genes in ecological interactions.

 

In her foreword to the course text, the renowned chemical ecologist, Miriam Rothschild tells the story of how brightly colored danaid butterflies were found to be toxic because they feed on poisonous plants.  She says that, "...it was T. Reichstein's matchless and trustworthy chemistry which suddenly floodlit the scene and linked the herbivores and their host plants in a biochemical synthesis. .... Reichstein's identification of ten cardiac glycosides in both D. plexippus and its food plant seemed to be the spark which ignited a small conflagration .....  Such an explosion of interest -- embarras de richesse -- leaves the scene in some sort of confusion, and we can now be grateful to Jeffrey Harborne for drawing the scattered pieces of the jigsaw together, thereby achieving a synthesis, richly flavoured with his own original ideas and lucid interpretations."

 

Jeffrey Harborne was a good friend of Miriam Rothschild's (who sadly died aged 96 in January 2005) and with her he is one of pioneering parents of chemical ecology.  Arguably, chemical ecology was born 36 years ago with the publication of Lincoln Brower's 1969 paper on “Ecological Biochemistry”, the book by Sondheimer and Simeone in 1970 called “Chemical Ecology”, and Whittaker and Feeny's 1970 paper on “Allelochemicals”; even though some very influential papers were published by Dethier in 1954, Fraenkel in 1959 and Ehrlich and Raven in 1964 (see bibliography for citations).

 

In this course we will emphasize a more ecological framework than the mostly biochemical approach of Jeffrey Harborne's book.  We will do this to try and make a bit more conceptual sense of chemical ecology so that we can complete the course by trying to answer the question, "Is interdisciplinary understanding between ecology and chemistry productive?"

 

 


COURSE STRUCTURE AND EVALUATION

 

Each Monday session will start with a 50-minute lecture by Steve Malcolm on the relevant topic.  After a short break, the sessions will continue with one 20 minute student presentation on an in-depth aspect of the weekly topic, followed by 30 minutes of discussion.  Each Wednesday session will be focused on research in chemical ecology either in room 1106 Wood hall, or in Steve Malcolm's laboratory (3440 Haenicke Hall).  Presenters will be awarded marks for the presentations and marks will also be awarded to all discussion participants as described below.  So if you find it difficult to talk in public, it would be a good idea to try and make some kind of contribution to the discussion by being well-prepared each session - no constructive comments can ever be considered pointless or silly, so please come prepared to say what you think, or at least try.

 

The laboratory session will be organized into group projects over the semester, as indicated in the schedule.  The project will be discussed in the first lab session in room 1106 Wood hall on Wednesday, January 11.

 

Each research group will also submit a coauthored research paper on their work and make a joint PowerPoint® presentation of their work to the class in a “Research Symposium” on April 17 & 19.  The research paper should follow the style and content of articles in the Journal of Chemical Ecology.  This research paper must be handed in no later than April 21.  Of course you are very welcome to hand it in earlier and you are welcome to discuss it with Steve Malcolm and submit a draft before final submission.  This paper will be marked critically as though you were submitting it for publication.  It should be readable, grammatically correct (and spelling checked) and must be word-processed.  The source of figures used, data, quotes and ideas that you do not generate must be fully acknowledged and plagiarism must be avoided.

 

COURSE ASSESSMENT

 

Performance in the course will be assessed on the basis of the points listed below awarded for presentation, research and two exams.  Each of the two exams will be based on take-home questions that should be answered with short, succinct essays, and figures.

 

 

 

points

Paper presentation

100

Research Exercise:

300

 

Laboratory notebook

100

 

Research paper

100

 

Research presentation

100

Exams

200

 

Midterm exam (Feb 22)

100

 

Final Exam (April 24)

100

 

TOTAL

600

 

Grading scale:

A = >90%

BA = >85%

B = >80%

CB = >75%

C = >70%

DC = >65%

D = >60%

E = <60%

 

 

Paper presentation:

 

I would like each person to make a PowerPoint® presentation of an assigned paper to the class and encourage discussion of the paper and concept.  The paper will be relevant to the topic for that week and either I will assign the paper or you may choose a paper (with my approval) that you would like to present.

 

The evaluation rubric for this presentation is as follows:

 

 

 

points

1.

Overall presentation - general overview

20

2.

Content of the presentation - accuracy and depth of communication

10

3.

Handout - quality of handout given to the class as a summary

10

4.

Understanding - relative level of appreciation for the material

10

5.

Clarity of presentation - ability to communicate the material clearly

10

6.

Stimulate questions - ability to generate discussion about the paper

10

7.

Handle questions - ability to explain the material

10

8.

Other material - use of other relevant papers, visual or other aids

20

 

TOTAL

100

 

Research Exercise:

 

For the research exercise I would like you to work in groups.  For spring 2006 there are 11 students in the class and I would like you to be a member of one of four research groups – 3 groups of 3 each and 1 group of 2.  Each of the following three research activities will be assessed as a member of a group – so all group members receive the same score.  I hope this will encourage you to work together.

 

Laboratory notebook:

Your group should have a bound, lined notebook to record all lab activity in each group.  The purpose of this notebook is to follow Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and make sure that your work is verifiable, ethical and accurate.  This record also assures your ownership of your own work and so all entries should be signed so that you know who did what.  A basic criterion for deciding how much detail to include could be the possible need to understand a year from now exactly what you did and who did it.  I will assess your notes as follows:

 

 

 

Points

1.

Detailed description of work done and observations made

20

2.

Null and alternative hypotheses created based on observations made

20

3.

Complete accounts of all data collected

20

4.

Analyses of data included in notebook

20

5.

Future research suggested by results and possible errors made

20

 

Total

100

 

Research paper:

The group research paper should follow your group notebook with an account of observations, hypotheses, methods, results and discussion.  The paper should be modeled after research papers in the Journal of Chemical Ecology (see instructions for authors at: http://www.springer.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-10027-70-35674461-0,00.html?detailsPage=contentItemPage&contentItemId=143542&CIPageCounter=CI_FOR_AUTHORS_AND_EDITORS_PAGE0) and structured as follows with each section assigned points as indicated:

 

 

 

points

1.

Introduction:

           Description of observations made and hypotheses tested

20

2.

Methods:

           Description of all methods used to test hypotheses

20

3.

Results:

           Description of results and statistical analyses

20

4.

Discussion:

           Assessment of the significance of your results

20

5.

Figures and tables:

           Graphical and tabular summaries of your results

20

 

Total

100

 

Research presentation:

The research presentation should follow the structure of your paper and will be evaluated in the same way as the paper presentation based on a published paper:

The 8 criteria are:

 

 

 

points

1.

Overall presentation - general overview

20

2.

Content of the presentation - accuracy and depth of communication

10

3.

Handout - quality of handout given to the class as a summary

10

4.

Understanding - relative level of appreciation for the material

10

5.

Clarity of presentation - ability to communicate the material clearly

10

6.

Stimulate questions - ability to generate discussion about the paper

10

7.

Handle questions - ability to explain the material

10

8.

Other material - use of other relevant papers, visual or other aids

20

 

TOTAL

100

 

 

Exams:

The two exams will be take-home exams in which essay-style answers will be expected in response to asked questions.  The answers will require access to relevant literature.

 

 

Academic integrity:

Cheating, fabrication and plagiarism will result in a score of zero for the relevant activity and will be treated as described under “Student Rights and Responsibilities” on pages 274-278 of the 2003-2005 Undergraduate Catalog.

 

“You are responsible for making yourself aware of and understanding the policies and procedures in the Undergraduate Catalog (pp. 274-276) that pertain to Academic Honesty. These policies include cheating, fabrication, falsification and forgery, multiple submission, plagiarism, complicity and computer misuse.

The academic work you submit must reflect your own efforts.  Where language or ideas are taken from other sources, you must take care to properly cite those sources.  Any required papers for this class may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to plagiarism detection software under license to WMU.  All papers submitted will be included as source documents in that reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of papers subsequently submitted to the system.  Students who take this class must be prepared to submit an electronic copy of an assignment if requested.  If a student is asked to submit a paper electronically this does not necessarily imply suspected plagiarism.

If there is reason to believe you have been involved in plagiarism or another form of academic dishonesty, you will be referred to the Office of Student Conduct. You will be given the opportunity to review the charge(s). If you believe you are not responsible, you will have the opportunity for a hearing. You should consult with me if you are uncertain about an issue of academic honesty prior to the submission of an assignment or test.”


CHEMICAL ECOLOGY - COURSE SCHEDULE Spring 2006

Week

Date

Chapter

Chapter

A.  INTRODUCTION

1.

January 11

Introduction to CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

Foreword

B.  CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF PLANT-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

2.

January 16

Martin-Luther King Day

 

2.

January 18

Research – room 1106 Wood Hall

 

C.  COMMUNICATION

3.

January 23

The abiotic environment

Chapter 1

3.

January 25

Plant-animal communication.

Chapter 2

4.

January 30

Animal-animal communication.

Chapter 8

4.

February 1

Research

 

D.  COMPETITION

5.

February 6

Animal competition.

Chapter 8

5.

February 8

Research

 

6.

February 13

Plant competition.

Chapter 9

6.

February 15

Research (mid-term exam available)

 

E.  TROPHIC INTERACTIONS

7.

February 20

Plant-pathogen.

Chapter 10

7.

February 22

Research (mid-term exam due)

 

SPRING BREAK

9.

March 6

Plant-insect.

Chapters 4 & 5

9.

March 8

Research

 

10.

March 13

Plant-vertebrate.

Chapters 4 & 6

10.

March 15

Research

 

11.

March 20

Animal-animal.

Chapter 8

11.

March 22

Research

 

12.

March 27

Tritrophic interactions.

Chapters 3 & 7

12.

March 29

Research

 

13.

April 3

Defense and natural enemy foraging.

Chapter 7

13.

April 5

Research

 

F.  COMPARISONS OF CHEMICALLY MEDIATED INTERACTIONS

14.

April 10

Terrestrial and aquatic systems.

Fenical, 1982

14.

April 12

Research

 

15.

April 17

Research Symposium

 

15.

April 19

Research Symposium

 

16.

April 24

FINAL EXAM 2:45-4:45 pm

1106 Wood hall

Text:  Harborne, J.B. 1993. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry. Fourth Edition. Academic Press, London & San Diego, 318 pp.

Optional text: Eisner, T., and Meinwald, J.. (Eds.) 1995. Chemical Ecology: The chemistry of biotic interaction. National Academy Press, Washington, 214 pp.

 

Web Resources for Chemical Ecology

 

Aquatic Chemical Ecology Group at the Georgia Institute of Technology:

http://www.biology.gatech.edu/professors/hay.html

http://www.biology.gatech.edu/igert.php

Biological Chemistry & Chemical Ecology Group at IACR, Rothamsted, UK (John Pickett, Lester Wadhams):

http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/bch/

http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/bch/CEGroup/ChemEcolGroup.html

 

Chemoecology: (Birkhäuser/Springer Publishers)

http://www.springerlink.com/(nd4r4pbpb54uos55xst2vcz3)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:101498,1

(note: Michael Boppré (University of Freiburg) and Steve Malcolm started this journal in 1989 as its first editors – we stepped down in 1997 and now Jacques Pasteels & Desiré Daloze of the Université Libre in Brussels are the editors).

Cornell University:

Cornell Institute for Research in Chemical Ecology (CIRCE)

http://www.nbb.cornell.edu/neurobio/CIRCE/CIRCE.html

 

Professor Thomas Eisner, Dept. Neurobiology & Behavior (Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Chemical Ecology and Director, Cornell Institute for Research in Chemical Ecology (CIRCE)

http://www.nbb.cornell.edu/neurobio/eisner/eisner.html

Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research http://bti.cornell.edu/

International Society of Chemical Ecology

http://www.chemecol.org/

Journal of Chemical Ecology (Springer Academic Publishers):

http://www.springerlink.com/(0l5gzrzljgmzyuzdrcyr1hzv)/app/home/journal.asp?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresults,1:104273,1

Max Planck Institute of Chemical Ecology

http://www.ice.mpg.de/main/home/home_en.htm

Ian Baldwin, Max Planck Institute of Chemical Ecology:

http://www.ice.mpg.de/itb/home/home_en.htm

Ring T. Cardé, Entomology, University of California – Riverside - insect behavior:

http://www.darwin.ucr.edu/

http://www.entomology.ucr.edu/people/carde.html

J. Daniel Hare, Entomology, University of California – Riverside - plant-herbivore:

http://www.entomology.ucr.edu/people/hare.html

http://faculty.ucr.edu/~harejd/

Jocelyn Millar, Entomology, University of California – Riverside - insect pheromones:

http://www.entomology.ucr.edu/people/millar.html

John Hildebrand, Entomology, University of Arizona - neurobiology:

http://neurobio.arizona.edu/faculty/hildebrand/index.php

Marcel Dicke, Entomology, Wageningen University- tritrophic interactions:

http://www.dpw.wau.nl/ento/english/Personel/Dicke%20Engels/dicke.htm

Louise Vet, The Netherlands Institute of Ecology - tritrophic interactions:

http://www.nioo.knaw.nl/ppages/lvet/

 


Some key references to Chemical Ecology.

(Organized according to the schedule and in chronological order - the "•" indicates that SM has the reference, otherwise the references are in the WMU library, except for those marked"*")

 

A. INTRODUCTION

1) Introduction to CHEMICAL ECOLOGY:

 

Historical background:

•Dethier, V.G. 1954. Evolution of feeding preferences in phytophagous insects. Evolution 8: 33-54.

•Fraenkel, G. 1959. The raison d'źtre of secondary plant substances. Science 129: 1466-1470.

•Ehrlich, P.R., and P.H. Raven. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18: 586-608.

•Brower, L.P. 1969. Ecological chemistry. Scientific American 220: 22-29.

•Whittaker, R.H., and P.P. Feeny. 1970. Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science 171: 757-770.

•Rothschild, M. 1973. Secondary plant substances and warning colouration in insects. Pp 59-83 in, H. van Emden (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London.6 Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

 

 

Relevant volumes:

•Sondheimer, E., and Simeone, J.B. (eds.) 1970. Chemical Ecology. Academic Press, New York. 336 pp.

•Wood, D.L., Silverstein, R.M., and Nakajima, M. (eds.) 1970. Control of Insect Behavior by Natural Products. Academic Press, New York. 345 pp.

•Harborne, J.B. (ed.) 1972. Phytochemical Ecology. Academic Press, London. 272 pp.

•Gilbert, L.E., and Raven P.H. (eds.) 1975. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. University of Texas Press, Austin. 246 pp.

•Wallace, J.W., and Mansell, R.L. (eds.) 1976. Biochemical Interaction Between Plants and Insects. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 10: Plenum Press, 425 pp.

•Harborne, J.B. (ed.) 1978. Biochemical Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution. Academic Press, London, 435 pp.

•Rosenthal, G.A., and Janzen, D.H. (eds.) 1979. Herbivores: Their Interaction with Secondary Plant Metabolites." Academic Press, New York, 718 pp. (Second edition in press as 2 volumes due in 1992).

•Bell, W.J., and Cardé, R.T. (eds.) 1984. The Chemical Ecology of Insects. Sinauer, Sunderland, 524 pp.

•Spencer, K.C. (ed.) 1988. Chemical Mediation of Coevolution. Academic Press, San Diego, 609 pp.

•Rosenthal, G.A., and Berenbaum, M.R. (eds.) 1991 & 1992. Herbivores. Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites. Vols I & II. Academic Press, San Diego.

•Roitberg, B.D., and Isman, M.B. (eds.) 1992. Insect Chemical Ecology. An Evolutionary Approach. Chapman & Hall, New York, 359 pp.

•Harborne, J.B. 1993. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry. Fourth Edition. Academic Press, London & San Diego, 318 pp. (course text).

•Cardé, R.T., and W.J. Bell. (eds.) 1995. Chemical Ecology of Insects 2. Chapman & Hall, New York, 433 pp.

•Eisner, T., and J. Meinwald (eds.) 1995. Chemical Ecology: The chemistry of biotic interaction. National Academy Press, Washington, 214 pp.

•Romeo, J.T., Saunders, J.A., and Barbosa, P. (eds.) 1996. Phytochemical Diversity and Redundancy in Ecological Interactions. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 30: Plenum Press, 319 pp.

•Karban, R., and Baldwin, I.T. 1997. Induced Responses to herbivory. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 319 pp.

 

B. CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF PLANT-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

 

2) The abiotic environment:

Fitter, A.H., and Hay, R.K.M. 1987. Environmental Physiology of Plants. 2nd edition. Academic Press, London.

Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses. 2nd edition, 2 vols. Academic Press, London.

Luckner, M. 1990. Secondary Metabolism in Microorganisms, Plants and Animals. 3rd edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

 

C. COMMUNICATION

 

3) Plant-animal (Mutualistic or antagonistic):

Bonner, J.T. 1984. The evolution of chemical signal-receptor systems (from slime moulds to man).  Pp. 1-15, in Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 1, R. Dawkins & M. Ridley (eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Pollination (mutualistic?):-

•Gilbert, L.E., and Raven P.H. (eds.). 1975. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. University of Texas Press, Austin. 246 pp. (several papers)

•Lewis, A.C., and Lipani, G.A. 1990. Learning and flower use in butterflies: Hypotheses from honey bees. Pp. 95-110, in E.A. Bernays (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions. Vol.II. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

 

"Green leaf volatiles" (antagonistic signals of herbivory/indirect mutualism):-

•Lewis, W.J., and Tumlinson, J.H. 1988. Host detection by chemically mediated associative learning in a parasitic wasp. Nature 331: 257-259.

Dickens, J.C., Jang, E.B., Light, D.M., and Alford, A.R. 1990. Enhancement of insect pheromone responses by green leaf volatiles.  Naturwissenschaften 77: 29-31.

•Whitman, D.W., and Eller, F.J. 1990. Parasitic wasps orient to green leaf volatiles. Chemoecology 1: 69-75.

 

4) Animal-animal (Mating; social structure):

*Ritter, F.J. (ed.) 1979. Chemical Ecology: Odour Communication in Animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.

•Bell, W.J., and Cardé, R.T. (eds.) 1984. The Chemical Ecology of Insects. Sinauer, Sunderland, 524 pp (several papers)

•Boppré, M. 1986. Insects pharmacophagously utilizing defensive plant chemicals (pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Naturwissenschaften 73: 17-26 (also see, •Boppré, M. 1990. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 165-).

•Gosling, L.M., and McKay, H.V. 1990. Scent-rubbing and status signalling by male mammals. Chemoecology 1: 92-95.

 

D. COMPETITION

 

5) Animal competition (Competition for mates, space, food, resources etc.):

•Bell, W.J., and Cardé, R.T. (eds.) 1984. The Chemical Ecology of Insects. Sinauer, Sunderland, 524 pp (several papers - competition is included under pheromonal communication in the "chemical-mediated spacing" section, eg. Prokopy et al.)

 

For marine systems see:

Scheuer, P.J. (ed.) 1978. Marine Natural Products: Chemical and Biological Perspectives. Academic Press, New York.

Fenical, W. 1982. Natural products chemistry in the marine environment. Science 215: 923-928.

Valiela, I. 1984. Marine Ecological Processes. Springer-Verlag, New York, 546 pp.

 

Note: we could include chemical defenses as a kind of indirect animal competition mediated via natural enemies - see the following references:

 

•Huheey, J.E. 1984. Warning coloration and mimicry.  Pp. 257-297, in Bell, W.J., and Cardé, R.T. (eds.) 1984. The Chemical Ecology of Insects. Sinauer, Sunderland.

•Kerfoot, W.C., and Sih, A. (eds.) 1987. Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities. University Press of New England, Hanover. 386 pp. (section II)

 

6) Plant competition (Review allelopathy):

Putnam, A.R., and Tang, C-S. (eds). 1986. The Science of Allelopathy. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 317 pp.

Karban, R., Adamchak, R., and Schnathorst, W.C. 1987. Induced resistance and interspecific competition between spider mites and a vascular wilt fungus. Science 235: 678-680 (an intriguing example of competition).

Inderjit, Dakshini, K.M.M., and Foy, C.L. (editors) 1999. Principles and practices in Plant Ecology. Allelochemical interactions. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 589 pp. (QK898.A43 P75 1999).

 

E. TROPHIC INTERACTIONS

 

7) Plant-pathogen (Include fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens of plants; also plant parasites like mistletoes etc.):

•Edwards, W.G.H. 1972. Orobanche and other plant parasite factors. Pp. 235-248, in, Harborne, J.B. (ed.), Phytochemical Ecology. Academic Press.

•Levin, D.A. 1976. The chemical defenses of plants to pathogens and herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 7: 121-159.

Bailey, J.A., and Deverall, B.J. (eds.) 1983. The Dynamics of Host Defence. Academic Press.

Callow, J.A. (ed.). 1983. Biochemical Plant Pathology. Wiley, Chichester.

 

8) Plant-insect:

•Levin, D.A. 1976. The chemical defenses of plants to pathogens and herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 7: 121-159.

•Feeny, P.P. 1976. Plant apparency and chemical defense. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 10: 1-40.

•Rhoades, D.F., and Cates, R.G. 1976. A general theory of plant herbivore chemistry. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 10: 168-213.

•Duffey, S.S. 1980. Sequestration of plant natural products by insects. Annual Review of Entomology 25: 447-477.

Wood, D.L. 1982. The role of pheromones, kairomones and allomones in the host selection and colonization behaviour of bark beetles. Annual Review of Entomology 27: 411-446.

•Berenbaum, M. 1983. Coumarins and caterpillars: a case for coevolution. Evolution 37: 163-179.

•Coley, P.D., Bryant, J.P., and Chapin, F.S.III 1985. Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 230: 895-899.

•Mattson, W.J., Levieux, J., and Bernard-Dagan, C. (eds.). 1988. Mechanisms of Woody Plant Defenses Against Insects: Search for Pattern. Springer-Verlag, New York. 416 pp.

Staal, G.B. 1986. Antijuvenile hormone agents. Annual Review of Entomology 31: 391-429.

•Brattsten, L.B., and Ahmad, S. (eds.). 1986. Molecular Aspects of Insect-Plant Associations. Plenum Press, New York. 346 pp.

•Berenbaum, M.R. 1990. Plant consumers and plant secondary chemistry: past, present and future. Pp. 285-307, in Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 7, D. Futuyma & J. Antonovics (eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

The role of symbiotes:-

•Campbell, B.C. 1989. On the role of microbial symbiotes in herbivorous insects. Pp. 1-44, in E.A. Bernays (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions. Vol.1. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

 

9) Plant-vertebrate:

•Arnold, G.W., and Hill, J.L. 1972. Chemical factors affecting selection of food plants by ruminants. Pp. 72-101, in Harborne, J.B. (ed.) Phytochemical Ecology. Academic Press, London.

•Bryant, J.P., and Kuropat, P.J. 1980. Selection of winter forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: The role of plant chemistry. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 11: 261-285.

•Lindroth, R.L. 1988. Adaptations of mammalian herbivores to plant chemical defenses. Pp 415-445, in K.C. Spencer (ed.), Chemical Mediation of Coevolution. Academic Press, San Diego. (includes role of symbiotes in vertebrates).

 

10) Animal-animal:

•Brower, L.P. 1969. Ecological chemistry. Scientific American 220: 22-29.

•Rothschild, M. 1973. Secondary plant substances and warning colouration in insects. Pp 59-83 in, H. van Emden (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions. Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

•Pasteels, J.M., Grégoire, J-C., and Rowell-Rahier, M. 1983. The chemical ecology of defence in arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 28: 263-289.

•Evans, D.L., and Schmidt, J.O. (eds.) 1990. Insect Defenses: Adaptive mechanisms and strategies of prey and predators. State University of New York Press, Albany N.Y.

 

11). Tritrophic interactions:

•Price, P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.A., and Weis, A.E. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: Influence of plants on the interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies.  Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 11: 41-65.

•Malcolm, S.B., and Brower, L.P. 1989. Evolutionary and ecological implications of cardenolide sequestration in the monarch butterfly. Experientia 45: 284-295.

•Malcolm, S.B. 1990. Chemical defence in chewing and sucking insect herbivores: plant-derived cardenolides in the monarch butterfly and oleander aphid. Chemoecology 1: 12-21.

•Rowell-Rahier, M., and Pasteels, J.M. 1990. Phenolglucosides and interactions at three trophic levels: Salicaceae-Herbivores-Predators. Pp 75-110, in E.A. Bernays (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions. Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

•Malcolm, S.B. 1992. Cardenolide-mediated interactions between plants and herbivores.  Pp. 251-296 in G. Rosenthal and M. Berenbaum (eds.) Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites. 2nd edition, Vol. 1: The Chemical Participants. Academic Press.

 

F. COMPARISONS OF CHEMICALLY MEDIATED INTERACTIONS

 

13). Defence and natural enemy foraging (Compare defence and foraging in plants, invertebrates and vertebates):

•Feder, M.E., and Lauder, G.V. (eds.). 1986. Predator-Prey Relationships. Perspectives and Approaches from the Study of Lower Vertebrates. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

•Malcolm, S.B. 1990. Mimicry: status of a classical evolutionary paradigm.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5(2): 57-62.

•Malcolm, S.B. 1992. Prey defence and predator foraging. Pages 458-475 In, M.J. Crawley (editor), Natural Enemies: The population biology of predators, parasites and diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

 

14). Terrestrial and aquatic systems:

•Whittaker, R.H., and P.P. Feeny. 1970. Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science 171: 757-770.

•Fenical, W. 1982. Natural products chemistry in the marine environment. Science 215: 923-928.

•Kerfoot, W.C., and Sih, A. (eds.) 1987. Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities. University Press of New England, Hanover. 386 pp. (especially section IVA).

 

IS INTERDISCIPLINARY UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN ECOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY PRODUCTIVE?

 

Relevant journals include: •Journal of Chemical Ecology, •Chemoecology, *Biochemical Ecology & Systematics, Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, and Experientia.  Otherwise, relevant papers appear in most of the primary biological and ecological journals as well as review journals and Science and Nature.

 

Suggested discussion topics:

1) Is interdisciplinary understanding between ecology and biochemistry productive?

2) Can we suggest a better framework for classifying chemically mediated interactions than that of Whittaker and Feeny (1970)?

3) Should the very large literature on toxicology be included within Chemical Ecology?

4) How useful is chemical ecology towards solving applied problems?

5) Are environmental, medical, veterinary, chemical and ecological researchers compatible?

6) Chemical prospecting: Can ecology help in the search for biologically active chemicals?

7) Are diseases just as relevant to chemical ecology as herbivores, predators and parasites?