John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, pp. 639.3-642.9 (Vitelli)

Such, then, is Aristotle's account in which he seeks to show that forced motion and motion contrary to nature could not take place if there were a void. But to me this argument does not seem to carry conviction. For in the first place really nothing has been adduced, sufficiently cogent to satisfy our minds, to the effect that motion contrary to nature or forced motion is caused in one of the ways enumerated by Aristotle. . . .

For in the case of antiperistasis [the process whereby P1 pushes P2 into P3's place, P2 pushes P3 into P4's place, ..., Pn-1 pushes Pn into P1's place] there are two possibilities; (1) the air that has been pushed forward by the projected arrow or stone moves back to the rear and takes the place of the arrow or stone, and being thus behind it pushes it on, the process continuing until the impetus of the missile is exhausted, or, (2) it is not the air pushed ahead but the air from the sides that takes the place of the missile. . . .

Let us suppose that antiperistasis takes place according to the first method indicated above, namely, that the air pushed forward by the arrow gets to the rear of the arrow and thus pushes it from behind. On that assumption, one would be hard put to it to say what it is (since there seems to be no counter force) that causes the air, once it has been pushed forward, to move back, that is along the sides of the arrow, and, after it reaches the rear of the arrow, to turn around once more and push the arrow forward. For, on this theory, the air in question must perform three distinct motions: it must be pushed forward by the arrow, then move back, and finally turn and proceed forward once more. Yet air is easily moved, and once set in motion travels a considerable distance. How, then, can the air, pushed by the arrow, fail to move in the direction of the impressed impulse, but instead, turning about, as by some command, retrace its course? Furthermore, how can this air, in so turning about, avoid being scattered into space, but instead impinge precisely on the notched end of the arrow and again push the arrow on and adhere to it? Such a view is quite incredible and borders rather on the fantastic.

Again, the air in front that has been pushed forward by the arrow is, clearly, subjected to some motion, and the arrow, too, moves continuously. How, then, can this air, pushed by the arrow, take the place of the arrow, that is, come into the place which the arrow has left? For before this air moves back, the air from the sides of the arrow and from behind it will come together and, because of the suction caused by the vacuum, will instantaneously fill up the place left by the arrow, particularly so the air moving along with the arrow from behind it. Now one might say that the air pushed forward by the arrow moves back and pushes, in its turn, the air that has taken the place of the arrow, and thus getting behind the arrow pushes it into the place vacated by the very air pushed forward (by the arrow) in the first instance. But in that case the motion of the arrow would have to be discontinuous. For before the air from the sides, which has taken the arrow's place, is itself pushed, the arrow is not moved. For this air does not move it. But if, indeed, it does, what need is there for the air in front to turn about and move back? And in any case, how or by what force could the air that had been pushed forward receive an impetus for motion in the opposite direction? . . .

So much, then, for the argument which holds that forced motion is produced when air takes the place of the missile (antiperistasis). Now there is a second argument which holds that the air which is pushed in the first instance [i.e. when the arrow is first discharged] receives an impetus to motion, and moves with a more rapid motion than the natural [downward] motion of the missile, thus pushing the missile on while remaining always in contact with it until the motive force originally impressed on this portion of air is dissipated. This explanation, though apparently more plausible, is really no different from the first explanation by antiperistasis, and the following refutation will apply also to the explanation by antiperistasis.

In the first place we must address the following questions to those who hold the views indicated: "When one projects a stone by force, is it by pushing the air behind the stone that one compels the latter to move in a direction contrary to its natural direction? Or does the thrower impart a motive force to the stone, too?" Now if he does not impart any such force to the stone, but moves the stone merely by pushing the air, and if the bowstring moves the arrow in the same way, of what advantage is it for the stone to be in contact with the hand, or for the bowstring to be in contact with the notched end of the arrow?

For it would be possible, without such contact, to place the arrow at the top of a stick, as it were on a thin line, and to place the stone in a similar way, and then, with countless machines, to set a large quantity of air in motion behind these bodies. Now it is evident that the greater the amount of air moved and the greater the force with which it is moved the more should this air push the arrow or stone, and the further should it hurl them. But the fact is that even if you place the arrow or stone upon a line or point quite devoid of thickness and set in motion all the air behind the projectile with all possible force, the projectile will not be moved the distance of a single cubit.

If, then, the air, though moved with a greater force [than that used by one who hurls a projectile], could not impart motion to the projectile, it is evident, in the case of the hurling of missiles or the shooting of arrows, it is not the air set in motion by the hand or bowstring that produces the motion of the missile or arrow. For why would such a result be any more likely when the projector is in contact with the projectile than when he is not? And, again, if the arrow is in direct contact with the bowstring and the stone with the hand, and there is nothing between, what air behind the projectile could be moved? If it is the air from the sides that is moved, what has that to do with the projectile? For that air falls outside the [trajectory of the] projectile.

From these considerations and from many others we may see how impossible it is for forced motion to be caused in the way indicated. Rather is it necessary to assume that some incorporeal motive force is imparted by the projector to the projectile, and that the air set in motion contributes either nothing at all or else very little to this motion of the projectile. If, then, forced motion is produced as I have suggested, it is quite evident that if one imparts motion "contrary to nature" or forced motion to an arrow or a stone the same degree of motion will be produced much more readily in a void than in a plenum. And there will be no need of any agency external to the projector. . . .