Voet and Voet, Chapter 28

2.  To calculate how many nucleotides you must first consider how many amino acids in a 40,000 mw protein.  The average mw of an amino acid is 110 so 40,000 / 110 = approximately 360.  If there are 360 amino acids and three nucleotides encodes for one amino acid multiply 360 x 3 = 1080.

4.    a.  Decreasing ionic strength decreases shielding around phosphate backbone thus Tm should also decrease.
       c.  Adding adenine could complete with thymidine on the DNA strand thus destabilizing the helix thus lowering Tm.
       e.  Nonpolar solvents will disrupt hydrophobic interactions and lower Tm.

10.  Sugar phosphate backbone is involved in supercoiling since this enzyme does not affect the 5 to 3 linkage there is no effect.

13.  Blunt ends:  Alu I, Eco RV, Hae III, Msp I.

14.  Circular plasmid (5.4 kb in length) with Eco RI at 0 bp, Hind III at 1.3 kb, Sal I at 2.2 kb, Hind III at 3.4 kb and Hind III at 4.8 kb.

15.  50- TCGACAAAGGA??A?ACTTTAACAATAGGCGAGTGTTAAGGTGTGTTGTAT-100
 

Voet and Voet, Chapter 29

5.  -35 TTTACA        -10 TATGAT          +1 G

6.  Rifampcin specifically inhibits procaryotic RNA polymerase thus the enzyme is unable to initiate transcription.
 

Voet and Voet, Chapter 30

2.   initiate (AUG) Cys Gln Arg Ala Gln stop (UAG)

12.  Oligos containing the Shine-Delgarno sequence bind to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA in prokaryotes.  Eukaryotes do not have this sequence.

19.  Since dipeptides are formed, it is likely fixmycin inhibits translocation.