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Title: Using Spatial Patterns to Solve Geographic Problems

 

Abstract:

In this lesson students will learn that spatial patterns and the applications of a spatial perspective enable people to solve problems using geographic content.

 

Lesson abstract: Students will compare the distribution and pattern of cholera deaths to solve the problem of the cause of the outbreak.

 

GLCE Addressed in this Lesson

K1.1 Know the defining characteristics of the disciplines of history and geography.

 

K1.3 Understand and analyze temporal and spatial relationships and patterns.

 

P2.2 Read and interpret data in tables and graphs and maps

 

Geographic Questions:

Why do people get ill in different geographic environments?

How can geography be used to solve problems?

 

Objectives for the Lesson:

As a result of this lesson the student will be able to:

1.      Explain that data may be entered on maps to show their spatial patterns

2.      Describe the distribution of deaths by cholera in London in 1853 using the terms such as denser and less dense.

3.      Compare and contrast two different sets of data on the same maps to determine spatial relationships.

4.      Explain the way that maps may be used to solve problems.

 

 

 

Materials:

 

Student needs:

1.      Information about Cholera (important information may be obtained for the teacher, but hold the information about water until Step 8)

2.      Map of  Deaths from Cholera in 1854 in London

3.      Map of Water Wells and Cholera Deaths in London in 1854

Items 1, 2, and 3 are available from the following website. The maps are included at the end of the lesson for printing.

a.       http://geography.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=geography&cdn=education&tm=98&f=10&su=p897.4.336.ip_&tt=2&bt=1&bts=1&st=17&zu=http%3A//www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/ideas912/912choleraho3.html

 

4.      Instructions to add locations of Horse Stables to Map

 

5.      Worksheet to Synthesize the Importance of Spatial Information and Mapping

 

Teacher needs:

1.      Master copy of Map of Deaths by Cholera, either print or electronic copy

2.      Master copy of Map of Deaths by Cholera and Water Wells, either print or electronic copy

3.      Worksheet to guide students through steps in the spatial analysis of Deaths by Cholera

 

Opening the lesson:

 

Step 1 – Discussion with the class. Write key words and ideas on the white board (epidemic, spatial pattern, data) Epidemic is a term we use and hear others use.

a.      What is an epidemic?

b.      What illnesses are accompanied by an epidemic? Provide some symptoms of Cholera: high fever, bad diarrhea, dehydration, and death unless the ill person can be rehydrated. Make it graphic to get attention.

c.       What are the symptoms of the flu?

d.      Do people every get ill from being near animals? Cite examples of rabies, West Nile Virus, Avian (Bird) flu, Swine flu, and sleeping sickness (Equine encephalitis).

Today the class is going to become health detectives by using geography to solve a health problem from London in 1854.

 

Developing the lesson:

Step 2 – Distribute map: Map of Cholera Deaths. Identify several of the landmarks on the map, such as Piccadilly, Regent Street, Oxford Street, and  explain to the class that these street names enable the person viewing this map to know the name of the place. Are they any suggestions about the Place? The correct identifying response may come immediately, or may take a few tries. If not provide the answer, London, England.

a.       Use the scale in meters (which is about the same as one yard – or 39 inches) to describe the geographic size of this part of London.

b.      It is about the length of five football fields each way on Earth’s surface.

c.       Explain that in 1854 there were many people living in this part of London. It had a high population density.

 

Step 3 – In 1854 the people of London were suffering from a very serious Cholera Epidemic. This was before microscopes and laboratory tests for diseases, so doctors had to use their experience and available knowledge to solve the mysteries of people getting sick and dying in large number. The Map of  Cholera Deaths shows where one physician named Dr. Snow was treating patients and the dot shows the address where his patients had died from the disease. Every time a patient died, Dr. Snow placed a dot on a map he kept in his office.

a.       Study the dots. The dots on the map are called the spatial distribution of deaths.

b.      The differences between areas where the dots are close together and where they are far apart is call the density of the deaths.

c.       The areas of London that had clusters of deaths of different densities show the spatial pattern on the map.

The challenge for Dr. Snow was to determine why people were dying of cholera. He wanted to use the patterns of deaths to help him solve the mystery.

 

Step 4 – Most of the traveling in this part of London was possible by waking or by horse drawn taxi. Dr. Snow often too taxis to visit his patients. While visiting patients he also notices that many people congregated each day near two types of shops. One was the Green Grocers where people purchased fresh vegetables. The other was the Fish Mongers where people purchased freshly caught fish. He began to develop some ideas about how the disease was moving from one person to another. Encourage the class to develop three hypotheses about how the disease was spreading that deal with: 

a.       the Hhorse Stables (horse manure and stables);

b.      Green Grocers; and

c.       Fish Mongers.

Hypotheses 1: Cholera is caused by the large amounts of horse manure that is gathered from streets and stables and stored in piles near the horse stables.

Hypothesis 2: Cholera is caused by the …

Hypothesis 3: Cholera is caused by the …

 

Step 5 – Ask the class what information they need to test each of the hypotheses. Guided discussion may be necessary by the teacher, but the information needed is the location (spatial distribution) of the horse stables, Green Grocers, and Fish Mongers. Tell the students that you have that information and you are going to provide it so they can add it to their Map of Cholera Deaths.

 

Step 6 – Divide the students into three groups and follow this process; the teacher may alter this procedure and use just one group (the entire class), two, or three groups depending on the dynamics of the student group.

Instruct the class (by student grouips) to add this information to the map:

                        Each student should add the following mapping information to their individual maps. The teacher may elect to assign pairs of students to work together.

 

Every student: Put a neatly drawn North Arrow on the map. North is at the top of the map.

                         Add a key to show what the symbols you use on your map represent

 

Group 1: Add the locations of the horse stables to your map. Use a triangle symbol.. The horse stables are located at:

                                                                                       i.      There is a stable at each corner of Golden Square inside the square

                                                                                     ii.      There is a stable at the NE corner of Broad and Berwick Streets

                                                                                    iii.      There is a stable at the NE corner of Brewer and Lexington Streets

                                                                                   iv.      There is a stable at the East side of Dean and Oxford Streets

 

Group 2: Add the locations of the Green Grocers to your map. Use a symbol (it cannot be a triangle)to identify the locations.  The green grocers are located at:

i.         Southwest corner of Oxford and Regent Streets

ii.       Northwest corner of Poland and Marlborough Streets

i.         Northeast corner of Brewer and Warder Streets

ii.       Southeast corner of King

iii.      Northwest corner of Brewer and Regent Streets

iv.     Southside of Brewer Street between Lexington and Berwick

v.       South of Golden Square on the North side of Brewer

 

Group 3: Add the locations of the Fish Mongers to your map. Use a symbol (it be different from stables and green grocers) to identify the locations.  The Fish Mongers are located at:

i.         Southeast corner of Marlborough and King Streets

ii.       Southeast corner of King Street

iii.      Northwest corner of Warrick and Brewer Streets

iv.     Intersection of Lexington and Brewer Streets

v.       East corner of Warrick and Brewer Streets

vi.     Along Warder 200 feet from the intersection of Brewer and Warder Streets

 

                                   

Step 7 – Display each of the Groups’ mapping of the their data using a projector or by posting maps on the white board or bulletin board and have each group study the other groups’ maps. To test the hypothesis the students look at each set of maps to determine if the greatest number of Deaths by Cholera and the stables green grocers, and fish mongers are located in the same areas in London.

                                    State the hypotheses for each set of data:

i.         Do we accept or reject the hypothesis about the horse stables based on spatial distribution on the maps?

ii.       Do we accept or reject the hypothesis about the Green Grocers based on spatial distribution on the maps?

iii.      Do we accept or reject the hypothesis about the Fish Monger based on the spatial distribution maps?

 

Step 8 – Each of the hypotheses will be rejected for the following reasons:

1.      The pattern of symbols does not correspond with the dots that indicate deaths from cholera. For example, the pattern or patterns of symbols would have to be similar in their distribution to the pattern of dots.

2.      There is no symbol that is located at the center of the spatial pattern of dots. This central location would suggest that the pattern of deaths is reduced with distance from that location.

Step 9 – What other items that people use regularly and need for life would they need to have in 1854? They need coal for heating and cooking, clothing, shoes, but the bad diarrhea and fever suggest it is something the people are either eating or drinking. What might be the source of cholera?

1.      Guide the discussion to consider water. Read the information in para

2.      What was the source of water in 1854? Water wells were the source

3.      Read the following narrative from the Cholera Information Sheet

a. The disease is contracted by ingesting food or drink—usually water—that is contaminated with a bacterium found in feces. After cholera bacteria are swallowed, they multiply in the small intestine, where they set off an infection that interferes with normal intestinal functions. Frequent diarrhea results. High fevers and vomiting are also common.

Step 10 – Indicate that you have a map from 1854 showing the water wells that Dr. Snow identified in London. Suggest that they can compare the spatial pattern of the water wells with the deaths from cholera.

1.      Hypothesis: Cholera is caused by the wells where the water contains the disease from being contaminated.

2.      Show the map of Deaths From Cholera and Water Wells in London in 1854.

3.      Are all the water wells surrounded by deaths from Cholera?  (No)

4.      Are there specific wells that appear to be surrounded by deaths from Cholera? (The Broad Street Well)

5.      Shall we accept our hypothesis or reject it?  (Accept the hypothesis based on the spatial patterns of deaths and wells.)

6.      New hypothesis: The Broad Street Well is the source of cholera.

 

Closing the lesson:

Step 11: How do you think that Dr. Snow can test his new hypothesis about the Broad Street Well?

           

 

Formative Evaluation:

 

 

Connections to other areas of the curriculum

 

Connection to parents

 

 

 

Materials and Resources

 

Location of Stables, Green Grocers, and Fish Mongers to add to the Deaths by Cholera Map of London in 1854

 

Every student: Put a neatly drawn North Arrow on the map. North is at the top of the map.

                         Add a key to show what the symbols you use on your map represent

 

Group 1: Add the locations of the horse stables to your map. Use a triangle symbol.. The horse stables are located at:

i.                     There is a stable at each corner of Golden Square inside the square

ii.                   There is a stable at the NE corner of Broad and Berwick Streets

iii.                  There is a stable at the NE corner of Brewer and Lexington Streets

iv.                 There is a stable at the East side of Dean and Oxford Streets

 

Group 2: Add the locations of the Green Grocers to your map. Use a symbol (it cannot be a triangle)to identify the locations.  The green grocers are located at:

i.                     Southwest corner of Oxford and Regent Streets

ii.                   Northwest corner of Poland and Marlborough Streets

iii.                  Northeast corner of Brewer and Warder Streets

iv.                 Southeast corner of King

v.                   Northwest corner of Brewer and Regent Streets

vi.                 Southside of Brewer Street between Lexington and Berwick

vii.                South of Golden Square on the North side of Brewer

 

Group 3: Add the locations of the Fish Mongers to your map. Use a symbol (it be different from stables and green grocers) to identify the locations.  The Fish Mongers are located at:

i.                     Southeast corner of Marlborough and King Streets

ii.                   Southeast corner of King Street

iii.                  Northwest corner of Warrick and Brewer Streets

iv.                 Intersection of Lexington and Brewer Streets

v.                   East corner of Warrick and Brewer Streets

vi.                 Along Warder 200 feet from the intersection of Brewer and Warder Streets

 

 

 

 Maps:

Deaths from Cholera

 

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Deaths From Cholera and Water Pumps

 

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