Positive Behavioral Supports

Ongoing Progress Monitoring


2.  PBS Defined

Positive behavior support is an application of a behaviorally-based systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools, families, and communities to design effective environments that improve the link between research-validated practices and the environments in which teaching and learning occurs.


Slides 2-10 adapted from http://www.pbis.org/schoolwide.htm

3.  PBS Levels

Attention is focused on creating and sustaining primary (school-wide), secondary (classroom), and tertiary (individual) systems of support that improve lifestyle results (personal, health, social, family, work, recreation) for all children and youth by making problem behavior less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional.


4.  Prevalence (draw your own picture here)



5.  Prevention

*Removing antecedent or preceding factors that prompt, trigger the undesirable behavior

*Adding antecedent or preceding factors that prompts, trigger the desirable behavior

*Removing consequence or following factors that maintain or strengthen occurrences of problem behavior and undesirable intervention practices

*Adding consequences or following factors that maintain or strengthen occurrences of appropriate behaviors and desirable intervention practices


6.  Prevention continued

*Arranging environments so opportunities are maximized to teach and practice appropriate behavior and desirable intervention practices.

*Teaching social skills and adopting intervention strategies that are more effective, efficient, and relevant than problem behaviors and undesirable intervention practices

*Removing consequences or following factors than inhibit or prevent occurrences of appropriate behaviors and use desirable intervention practices


7.  Instructional Emphasis

*Instructional emphasis in which social skills are taught in the same way as academic skills, and the reduction of problem behaviors is addressed by teaching functional replacement behaviors.


8.  Functional Perspective

*Functional Perspective in which the factors that maintain observed problem behaviors are used directly and primarily to build effective, efficient, and relevant behavior intervention plans. 


9.  Functions

Problem Behavior


Obtain/Get                               Escape/Avoid


10.  Sustainability Priority

*Practical applications in which implementation is based on the smallest change that will result in the largest impact.

*On-going collection and use of data because conditions continuously change and affect the status and best use of resources.


11.  What We Know About Prevention

Prevention in the Classroom

Positive behavior management

Social skills instruction

Academic enrichment

Schoolwide Prevention

Unified discipline approach

Shared expectations for socially competent behavior

Academic enrichment

School-Family-Community Linkages

Parent partnerships

Community services


12.  Positive Behavior Management

*Clearly communicated expectation for student behavior

*Ongoing positive and corrective feedback

*Fair and consistent treatment of students


13.  Prevention Strategies

Specific Praise



Contingent instructions

Contingent observations

Criterion—specific rewards


Group Contingencies

Peer Management


Parent Action






14.  Tertiary Prevention

     Most behavior intervention plans are created with the goal of:

      *increasing participation and presence in the school and community;

      *gaining and maintaining significant relationships;

      *expressing and making choices;

      *experiencing respect and living a dignified life; and

     *developing personal skills and areas of expertise.


15.  How do we do when a plan is effective?

*Effective tertiary interventions produce measurable changes in behavior and improvements in a student’s quality of life (e.g., participation in integrated activities, improved social relationships, independence and self-sufficiency).

*Individual BIPs include objective methods for evaluating these outcomes, and determining adjustments that might be warranted when progress does not occur within a reasonable time frame.


16.  Crisis Management

*To support Tertiary Prevention, therefore, safe crisis management procedures are needed and should be planned thoroughly in advance.

*It is important to remember that the goals of crisis management procedures are to ensure the safety of the student and all others, and to de-escalate the problem as rapidly as possible.


17.  On-going Progress Monitoring

Data Collection

*Many teachers see little value

*However, observation and measurement make it possible to determine to determine very accurately the effects of a particular instructional strategy or intervention


18.  Choosing a System


*Brett got out of his sear 6 six times in 30 min.

*Yao did 6 of 10 math problems during a timed trial

*Marvin had 8 tantrums on Wed.

*Lois’ hand was in her month 5 times during storytellling

When determining the frequency of a behavior, we count the number of times the behavior occurred within an observational period


19.  Choosing a System


The rate of behavior is frequency expressed in ratio with time

*Bret got out of his sear .2 times per min.

*Yao did .6 math problems per minute during a 2 minute time trial

*Marvin had 1.3 tantrums per hour in a 6 hour school day

*Lois put her hand in her month .5 times during a 10 min. story telling

*Rate is most often used to compare occurrences of behavior among observation periods of different lengths.


20.  Choosing a System


The duration of a behavior is a measurement of how long a student engages in it

*Brett was out of his sear for a total of 14 minutes

*Brett was out of his seat an average of 3 minutes per instance

*Yao worked on her math for 20 minutes

*Marvin’s tantrum lasted for 65 minutes

*Lois had her hand in her month for 6 minutes

*Duration is important when the concern is not the number or times, but how long.


21.  Choosing a System


A behavior’s latency is the length of time between instructions to perform it and the occurrence of the behavior.

*After I told Bret to sit in his chair, it took him 50 seconds to sit down.

*After the teacher said, “Get to work” Yao start into space for 5 minutes before she started her math

* Latency is relevant when the concern is not how long it takes for a student to do something, but how long it takes to begin to do it.


22.  Choosing a System


*The topography of behavior is the “shape” of the behavior-what it looks like

*Yao writes all the 4s backwards on her math paper

*Marvin screams, kicks his heels on the floor, and pulls hair during a tantrum

*Topography describes a behavior’s complexity or its motor components


23.  Choosing a System


The force of behavior is its intensity

*Yao writes so heavily that she makes holes in her paper

*Marvin screams so loudly that the teacher three doors sown the hall can hear him

*Lois’s hand sucking is so intense that she has broken the skin on her thumb

*Describing the intensity or force of a behavior often results in a qualitative measure that is hard to standardize


24.  Choosing a System


The locus of a behavior describes where it occurs, either in the environment or, for example, on the child or victim’s body

*Brett walks to the window and stares outside

*Yao writes the answers to her math problems in the wrong spaces

*Marvin hits his ears during a tantrum

*Locus describes either the target of the behavior or where in the environment the behavior is taking place.


25.  3 General Systems for Data Collection

1.  Analyzing written records (Anecdotal reports)

2.  Observing tangible products (Permanent product recording)

3.  Observing a sample of behavior (event recording, interval recording, time sampling, duration recording, latency recording)


26.  Value

Teachers collect data to make determinations about the success or need for change in instruction or behavioral intervention