1. Accommodations and Modifications
“Specially Designed Instruction”
instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child
under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction
n(i) To address the unique
needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and
n (ii) To ensure access
of the child to the general curriculum, so that he or she can meet the
educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply
to all children
to figure out what it means to enable a student access to the general education
3. The Beginning
must begin with an expectation that each student will succeed in the general
education curriculum and that every teacher has a role in providing instruction
that meets the curricular goals.
4. Three Domains
Process Involved in Learning
for Designing Instruction
6. Special Education and the General Curriculum
service or support that is provided to help a student fully access the subject
matter and instruction as well as to validly demonstrate what he or she knows”
should not interfere with or markedly change the standards specified for
student is expected to learn to a defined level of mastery all of the
information that typical students will learn
a student’s setting to a more quiet place
calculators or spell checkers
more practice, more opportunities, direct instruction
9. General Accommodations Categories
a instructional or curriculum modification is made, either the specific subject
matter is altered or the performance expected of the student is changed
student is taught something different or is taught the same information but at
a different level of complexity
rest of the class may be expected to tell the distinguishing characteristics of
animal and plant cells, but a student for whom a modification has been made may
simply be required to discriminate between animals and plants, given pictures
and short descriptions
12. Common Examples
assignments by giving fewer problems or asking them to write two to three
paragraphs instead of two to three pages
types of modifications can reduce a student’s opportunity to learn the critical
knowledge, skills, and concepts in certain subject matter
13. Common Examples
the student do the same activity as his/her peers?
the student do the same activity with adapted expectations?
the student do the same activity with adapted expectations and materials?
the student do a different activity amidst his/her peers?
the student do a different activity in another part of the room?
the student do a functional activity in a different part of the school?
Are the required adaptations justified?
Modifications, and Assessments
and District Assessments
grades provide feedback to students that will help them achieve their learning
17. Traditional Grading
Problems when working with students identified as LD
low grade reinforces failure
do not describe strengths and weaknesses
do not reflect each student’s level of functioning
18. Fair and Objective
of using different standards to evaluate students in the same classroom
if alternative grading procedures are necessary for that individual
19. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation
Grading: letter grades or percentages
System: broad based criteria are established for passing or failing
competency levels on student’s IEP are translated into the school
districts performance standards
Mastery or criterion-level grading: content is divided subcomponents. Students earn credit when their mastery of a
certain skills reaches an acceptable level
20. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation
Multiple Grading: the student is assessed and graded in several areas, such as
ability, effort, and achievement
Shared Grading: two or more teachers determine a
points are assigned to activities that add up to the term grade
Student Self-Comparison: students evaluate themselves on an
21. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation
nContracting: the student and teacher agree on specific
activities required for a certain grade
evaluation: a cumulative portfolio is
maintained of each student’s work, demonstrating achievement in key skill areas
from kindergarten to 12th grade.
22. The Challenge of Creating Access
Today all teachers must be skilled at making
This is no longer something that not only
special educators do.