Research 

Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. A position statement on the standards of medical care in diabetes is presented. (American, Diabetes Association. "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes." Diabetes care 27 (2004): S15-35. ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.)

The California Medi-Cal Type 2 diabetes Study Group randomized 362 Medicaid recipients with type 2 Diabetes for at least 1 year to intervention (diabetes case management) or control (traditional primary care treatment) groups. From the results of their study, they conclude that diabetes case management, added to primary care, substantially improved glycemic control compared with the control group. Diabetes case management can help reduce disparities in diabetes health status among low-income ethnic populations. (The California Medi-Cal Type 2 Diabetes,Study Group. "Closing the Gap: Effect of Diabetes Case Management on Glycemic Control among Low-Income Ethnic Minority Populations." Diabetes care 27.1 (2004): 95-103. ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.)