Questions 10-14

AN 210

Allen Zagarell
Fall 1998
109 Moore Hall
Office Hours M/W/Fr 11-12 Fr 2-3 

Readings Week 10:Analogy and Interpretation

1)What is meant by analogy? Compare specific analogy to general analogy.

2)Are there difficulties with using analogies to interpret? What are some of those difficulties? Can we do without analogy in order to interpret within archeology?

3)What kinds of broad social conditions can be used to help us draw and support analogies?

4)Describe and understand ethnoarcheology and experimental archeology as methods to interpret the archeological record 

Readings Week 11:Technology/Social Organization

1)How does an understanding of the techology utilized give us insights into a society (subsistence, food procurement, agriculture for example)?

2)Is it important to reconstruct systems of exchange? How might we go about doing so? What are some of the major exchange system categories utilized by archeologists?

3)What is meant by settlement archeology? What is meant by site catchment analysis? How does one go about analyzing each of these?How can we extract information about a society's social structure based upon settlement data? How can we reconstruct population information?

4)How do graves give us insights into a living society? 

Reading Week 12:Ideological and Symbol Systems 

1)Define what is meant by ideological system, cognitive archeology, symbols and material symbols?

2)What methods can one use to determine past meaning of material culture?

3)What is the role of analogy in interpretation?

4)How has the emphasis on meaning changed our view of of Upper Paleolithic European Rock art?

5)Know the history of regional notational systems and how they were potentially used. How did this work as a system of symbols?

6)How can a system of weights and measures be understood as a symbol system?

7)How can architecture give us insights into the world views of particularl societies? What is a worldview?

8)How can gender relations be seen as both social organization and as ideology? 

Reading Week 13:Frameworks:

1)What is the culture historical approach? How does it relate to the normative concept of culture?

2)Define the Processual Approach, cultural process, the scientific method and the Processual School. How do these differ from the Postprocessual approach and the cognitive concept of culture?

3)Know the difference between synchronic and diachronic views of society?

4)What is implied in the concepts the inevitable variation model, cultural invention, cultural selection, cultural drift and cultrual revival? What is meant by Internal Cultural Models?

5)What is meant by External Cultural Models? What is meant by and what is the result of diffusion, migration, invasion, exchange? What would constitute evidence of each? Think about the role of environmental change on society.

7)What is Systems Theory and how does it work? What is a closed system, an open system? What is meant by feedback, deviation counteracting and amplifying systems?

8)Differentiate between unilinear and multilinear Cultural Evolutionary Models. What are prime movers and how does the concept of prime mover differ from the multivariate concept? 

Reading Week 14:Challenges to Archaeology

1)What drives the system of looting found in the U.S. and other countries? What steps have been undertaken to stop or limit the looting as far as museums and individuals are involved? How have archeologists inadvertently encouraged looting and illicit excavations?

2)What is contract archeology? What is salvage archeology? What were some of the difficulties with contract archeology in the past?

3)What is Resource Cultural Management? What are the rationales for CRM?

4)What are some of the major governmental decisions about archeological behaviors in the Americas in the past 30 years?

5)What are the responsibilities of archeologists in regards to publishing their data?

6)What are the repsonsibilities archeologists have vis a vis the peoples whose archeological past they study?

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